Morphology Is a Valid Strategy for High School Students
Many research workers have proposed that learning pupils word roots unlocks the significances of unknown words. The bulk of words in the English linguistic communication have origins from Greek and Latin. Ninety per centum of English words over one syllable are Latin based. and the staying 10 per centum are Greek based ( Rasinski. Padak. Newton. & A ; Newton. ( 2008. p. 11 ) . Merely as phonics Teachs word households. Grecian and Latin roots will assist pupils sound out words and find the significances of words ( Padak. Newton. Rasinski. and Newton ( 2008. p. 29 ) . Nagy & A ; Anderson. 1984. found morphology played an of import function in larning vocabulary by leting pupils to do semantic connexions between related word households. They concluded. “The ability to use morphological relatedness among words puts a pupil at a distinguishable advantage in covering with unfamiliar words” ( p. 323 ) . While research supports the instruction of word roots. no formalistic direction in roots exists at my high school.
Purpose of my survey:
Students need vocabulary deciphering schemes in high school. Morphology is a valid scheme for high school pupils to better vocabulary. Surveies besides show an addition in reading comprehension and spelling.
Third through 6th class pupils performed better on reading and spelling with morphophonemic preparation than with merely developing in phonics ( Henry 1988. 1989. 1993 ) .
In the survey. “Contributions of Morphology Beyond Phonology to Literacy Outcomes of Upper Elementary and Middle-School Students. ” Nagy. Abbott. and Berninger ( 2006 ) found “Results showed that when the shared discrepancy among morphological consciousness. phonological working memory. and phonological decryption are controlled statistically. morphological consciousness contributes …at all class degrees to reading comprehension. reading vocabulary. and spelling” ( p. 143 ) .
“Corson. a British sociologist. even suggests that it is differences in linguistic communication ability. more than any other discernible factor. that affects children’s potency for success in school. He makes the point that larning the Latin and Greek word roots allows kids to get down larning the ‘specialist’ words in contrast to the Anglo-Saxon ‘performance’ vocabulary. He suggests that some societal groups do non larn these particular words in their natural environment. “ ( 1985. p. 28 ) .
The intent of this survey is to develop pupil morphemic consciousness and increase their cognition of the significances of word roots including prefixes and postfixs. New avenues of larning roots will be explored. The end is to better students’ possible to decode the significance of new vocabulary.
First. pupils will be able to split multi syllable words into word parts or morphemes. On Ellen Gagne’s degree of complexness in human accomplishments. utilizing Discrimination pupils can place and separate roots. prefixes. or postfixs in a word.
Following. pupils will larn the significances of common prefixes. postfixs and roots. Ellen Gagne would label Greek and Latin roots Defined Concepts.
I hope to demo pupils will be able to find a word’s significance based on their cognition of the word’s parts. Ellen Gagne would label this Higher Order Rules. Students will necessitate to use their antecedently learned definitions. to organize a new definition of a new word.
Area of Focus
Rootss to be studied will be pulled from assorted resources including: Stauffer. 1942. identified the 15 most common prefixes from the 10. 000 words in the Thorndike Word Book: Bachelor of Arts ( from ) . ad ( to ) . be ( by ) . com ( with ) . de ( from ) . en ( in ) . ex ( out ) . in ( into ) . in ( non ) . pre ( before ) . pro ( in forepart of ) . rhenium ( back ) . bomber ( under ) . United Nations ( non ) ( pg. 455 ) .
“Brown ( 1947 ) noted that 80 % of the English words borrowed from other linguistic communications come to us from Latin and Greek and do up about 60 % of our linguistic communication. He analyzed Latin and Greek word roots and concluded that 12 Latin and 2 Grecian roots. along with 20 of the most often used prefixes would bring forth an estimated 100. 000 words ( see Table 1 ) ” ( Henry. 1993 ) . Brown’s 14 roots: 1. collapsible shelter. 10. Sn. tain 2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. lose. mitt 3. cap. capt. cip. cept. 4. 14. Scribe. book 5. Saturday. stat. sist 6. graph. gm 7. log. logy 8. spect 9. plic. pled. 10. ply11. 10s. be given. tent 12. duc. canal 13. Po. pon 14. face. tic. fact
Padak. Newton. Rasinski. and Newton ( 2008 ) identified a series of flat 1. degree 2. and level 3 roots for primary. intermediate and in-between school pupils ( pgs. 12-15 ) . Their lists includes prefixes. postfixs. and bases ( roots ) from both Latin and Greek.
The Least You Should Know about Vocabulary Building by Glazier. Friend. & A ; Knight. Greek & A ; Latin Roots: Keys to Building Vocabulary by Rasinski. Padak. Newton & A ; Newton.
Past Problems Achieving Learning Targets
My school does non learn Latin. Besides. vocabulary edifice is non built into the English criterions. Students without old exposure to word roots. postfixs. and prefixes will non acquire extra exposure at our high school. The school I teach at draws pupils from 27 different towns throughout northwesterly Connecticut. Students do non come with a consistent nucleus of erudite roots.
Students need to increase their vocabulary to be able to read and grok complex texts. Students that can utilize context hints and cognition of word beginnings to decode a new word’s significance. Students need to construe vocabulary for standardised trials. when reading their text editions. and other day-to-day reading.
“If…it is one’s end top promote generalized vocabulary acquisition by fiting readers with schemes that will heighten their independent vocabulary acquisition. so direction in morphemic and contextual analysis becomes the preferable approach” ( Baumann et al. 452 ) .
“The linguistic communication of school. particularly in the upper classs. is frequently driven by content country texts. Most of the forte words in math. scientific discipline. and societal surveies come from Latin and Greek origin” ( Henry. 1993 ) .
I am interested to cognize if pupils can increase their ability to specify unknown words if they have knowledge of spliting words into morphemes and have learned prefixes. postfixs. and roots. Learning Plan Ideas
brassy cards/virtual flashcards/app for I touch/I Pad/I Phone
I touch applications
Baumann. James F. . & A ; Edwards. Elizabeth Carr. Font. George. Tereshinski. Cathleen A. . Kame’enui. Edward J. . Olejnik. Stephen. ( 2002 ) . Teaching morphemic and contextual analysis to fifth-grade pupils. Reading Research Quarterly. 2. 150-176. Baumann. James F. . Boland. Eileen M. . & A ;
Edwards. Elizabeth Carr. & A ; Olejnik. Stephen. & A ; Kame’enui. Edward J. ( 2003 ) . Vocabulary fast ones: Effectss of direction in morphology and context on fifth-grade students’ability to deduce and deduce word significances. American Educational Research Journal. 40. 447-494.
Bromley. Karen. ( 2007 ) . Nine things every instructor should cognize about words and vocabulary direction. Journal of Adolescent & A ; Adult Literacy. 7. 528-537.
Brunner. Brett L. ( 2006 ) . Word Empire: A Utilitarian Approach to Word Power Brett L. Brunner. M. A. Star Nemeton Educational Innovations. LLC
Bryant. Peter. & A ; Hurry. Jane. & A ; Nunes. Terezinha. & A ; Pretzlik. Ursula ( 2006 ) . Bettering literacy by learning morphemes. New York. New york: Routledge
Carlisle. Joanne F. & A ; Stone. Addison C. ( 2005 ) . Researching the function of morphemes in word reading. Reading Research Quarterly. 4. 428-449.
Fresch. Mary Jo ( 2007 ) . Word survey: Wayss to capture loath scholars. Adolescent Literacy in Perspective. March. 8-11.
Glazier. Teresa Ferster. Knight. Laura. & A ; Friend. Carol. ( 2004 ) . The least you should cognize about vocabulary edifice: Word roots. Wadsworth Printing
Green. Tamara M ( 2008 ) . Greek & A ; Latin roots of English. Lanham. Maryland: Rowman & A ; Littlefield Publishers. Inc.
Haag. E Stern ( 2003 ) . In hunt of the benefits of larning Latin. Journal of Educational Psychology 95. 174-178.
Henry. Marcia. ( 1993 ) . Morphologic construction: Latin and Grecian roots and affixes as upper class codification schemes. Reading and Writing. 2. 227-241.
Holmes. Thomas C. . & A ; Keffer. Ronald L ( 1995 ) . A computerized method to learn
Latin and Greek root words: Consequence on verbal SAT Scores. The Journal of Educational Research. 1. 47-50.
Langer. Judith A. ( 2001 ) . Beating the Oddss: Teaching Middle and High School Students to Read and Write Well. American Educational Research Journal 40. 447-494.
Menn. Lise. & A ; Peters. Ann M. ( 1993 ) . False starts and filler syllables: Ways to larn grammatical morphemes. Language. 4. 742-777. Nagy. William E. . Anderson. Richard C. ( 1984 ) . How many words are at that place in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly. 19. 303-330.
Nagy. William. Abbott. Robert D. . & A ; Berninger. Virginia W. ( 2006 ) . Contributions of morphology beyond phonemics to literacy results of upper simple and middle-school pupils. Journal of Educational Psychology 98. 134-147. Newton. Rick M. . & A ; Newton. Evangeline ( 2005 ) . A small Latin…a batch of English. Adolescent Literacy in Perspective. June. 2-7. Otterman. Lois. ( 1955 ) . The value of learning prefixes and word-roots. The Journal of Educational Research. 8. 611-616. Padak. Nancy. & A ; Newton. Rick M. . & A ; Newton. Evaneline. & A ; Bromley. Karen ( 2008 ) . Grecian and Latin roots: Keys to constructing vocabulary. HuntingtonBeach. Calcium: Shell Education.
Padak. Nancy. & A ; Newton. Evangeline & A ; Rasinski. Timothy. & A ; Newton. Rick M. ( 2008 ) . Geting to the root of word survey: instruction Latin and Greek word roots in simple and in-between classs. In Farstrup. Alan E. . & A ;
Samuels. S. Jay. What research has to state about vocabulary direction ( 6-31 ) . Newark. DE: International Reading Association.
Scanlan. Richard. T. ( 1976 ) . A computer-assisted-instruction class in vocabulary edifice through Latin and Greek roots. Foreign Language Annals. 6. 579-583.
Stauffer. Russell G. ( 1942 ) . A Survey of prefixes in the Thorndike List to set up a list of prefixes that should be taught in the simple
school. The Journal of Educational Research. 6. 453-458.