Which nucleotide pair has high frequency of mutation in human chromozomal DNA?


Spontaneous deaminazation of methylcytosine results in thymine formation; it occurs 2.5 X more frequently than any other single nucleotide mutation

During the 2 phase of the cell cycle, the DNA content of a cell is



The G2 phase of the cell cycle follows the S phase, where NA content goes from 2N to 4N or from diploid to tetraploid

Intervening -sequences are found in

Hetero-nuclear RNA

Hetero-nuclear RNA is made up of newly transcribed mRNA that still contains intervening sequences.

Which is considered an epigenitic modification of DNA

Methylazaton of CpG islands in the promoter region of a gene.


Methylazation of CpG islands is an epigenetic mechanism of gene silencing.

A metaphase chromozome with primary constriction that gives the chromozome clearly defined short and long arms is considered



Chromosomes with clearly defined short and long arms are known as submetricentric chromosomes

Reverse transcriptase would best be described as a:

RNA dependent DNA polymerase


RT synthesizes a DNA molecule from an RNA template

The 2 allels for a sex-linked resessive disease are X and x. The mutant alleal is x. What is the percentage of male offspring that would be expected to be affected by the disease from from parents who have the following genotypes? 

mother Xx

Father xY



One X chromosome is passed on to all sons

by the mother; since she is a carrier of a mutant X alleal, 50% of her sons will be affected.

The term that best describes males reguarding the X-linked genes is:



Males are hemizygous for X linked allels because they have only one copy of the X chromozome.

The mode of inheritance of mitochondrial DNA is:



All mitochondra are passed on from a mother to her children, but not by a father to his children

Which statement concerning the resoluton of DNA on agarose gel is true

As the concentration of agarose in the gel increases, the smaller the size of DNA that can be resolved on the gel.


The greater the concentration of agarose, the smaller the size of DNA that can be resolved.

An RFLP is most likely detected using which of the following methods?

Southern blot


RFLP analysis is preformed on DNA. Southern blotting id the method used to separate DNA fragments bby size, transfer the DNA fragments to a solid support, and then hybridize with a probe specific for the gene of interest,

The methodology of performing a reverse dot blot is described as:
Attaching multiple probes to a nitrocellulose membrane and then hybridizing a singlelabeled patient sample to multiple probes
Which condition has the higest stringency for washing a southern blot after hybridization has been completed.
High temperature ,low salt concentration
The Klenow fragment of E-coli DNA polymerasse 1 is used
To label DNA probes by random primer lableing
What is a solution hybridization method for the detection of nucleic acid protein interaction?
gel mobility shift assay
Which probe is most often used to detect trisomy 21 by interphase fish?
Alpha satelitte DNA probe
How many volumes of ethanol are added to 1 volume of a DNA salt solution to cause the DNA to precipitate?
Chelex 100 resin is used to:
Extract DNA from cells
The fluorescent dye that exhibits the greatest sensitivity for quantitation of DNA is:
SYBR Green
When quantifying the amount of genomic DNA in a sample by spectrophotometry, an OD 260 of 1.0 cooresponds to what concentration of DNA
50 ug/mL
An RNA sample is isolated from pheriheral blood cells of a patient. When performing spectrophotometry analysis to determine the yeald of RNA in the sample you find the 1:40 dilution of the 0.5 mL sample gives an OD 260 reading of 0.03125 and an OD 280 reading of 0.01760. What is the total amount of RNA contained in the 0.5mL sample?
25 ug

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