## Module 7: Atomic Structure

 Another name for a Crookes tube
 Cathode ray tube
 Like charges do this to each other. (204)
 Repel
 Opposite charges do this to each other. (204)
 Attract
 Two types of electrical charge (203)
 Positive, negative
 Matter which has no overall electrical charge is said to be ________.  (203)
 Neutral
 One of the 3 particles that make up the atom.  It is negatively charged and orbits the nucleus of the atom. (205)
 Electron
 One of the three particles that make up the atom.  It is positively charged and is in nucleus of the atom. (205)
 Proton
 One of the three particles that make up the atom.  It is electrically neutral and is in the nucleus of the atom. (205)
 Neutron
 An atom’s ______ ________ tells you how many protons it contains. (205)
 Atomic number
 Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. (206)
 Isotopes
 Total number of neutrons and protons in an atom (207)
 Mass number
 Process by which the abundance of one isotope in an element is increased.; Typically used in order to make fuel for nuclear bombs. (208)
 Isotopic enrichment
 A constructed image of something we cannot see with our eyes (209)
 Model
 Another name for the Rutherford model. (211)
 Planetary model
 A model that said the atom is made of a dense, positively-charged nucleus with electrons orbiting the nucleus in circles. (211)
 Rutherford model
 Center of the atom.; Contains the neutrons and protons. (212)
 Nucleus
 A “particle” of light. (213)
 Photon
 The theory that light sometimes behaves as a particle and sometimes behaves as a wave. (213)
 Particle/Wave Duality Theory
 Distance between crests (or troughs) of a wave. (214)
 Wavelength
 A measure of the height of the crests or the depths of the troughs on a wave (214)
 Amplitude
 Range of light wavelengths that are visible to the human eye (215)
 Visible spectrum
 A measurable quantity in nature that does not change (216)
 Physical constant
 Number of wave crests (or troughs) that pass a given point each second (217)
 Frequency
 Standard unit for frequency (217)
 Hertz (Hz) 1/second
 When W is large, f is small. When w is small, F is large. When two quantities behave like this, we say that they are _________; __________. (219)
 Inversely related
 The total range of wavelengths of light that come from the sun (219)
 Electromagnetic spectrum
 As a light wave’s frequency increases, its _________ also increases. As a light wave’s frequency decreases, its ________ also decreases. (220)
 Energy, energy
 As a light wave’s wavelength increases, its energy _________. As a light wave’s wavelength decreases, its energy _________. (220)
 Decreases, increases
 Another term for light, including all wavelengths, both visible and not visible. (221)
 The physical constant that relates the energy of light to its frequency: 6.63 X 10-34 J/Jz (221)
 Planck’s constant
 Cells on the eye’s retina that detect low levels of light (223)
 Rods
 Cells on the eye’s retina that Let us write you a custom essay sample on Module 7: Atomic Structure For Only \$13.90/page ORDER NOW detect different energies of light.  These cells are responsible for our ability to see colors. (223)
 Cones
 Device that analyzes light emitted or absorbed by a substance (225)
 Spectrometer
 Process by which individual wavelengths of light emitted by a substance are analyzed.  This process can be used to identify the elements in a substance. (225)
 Spectroscopy
 The assumption that a physical quantity (such as energy) cannot have any value, but is restricted to have only discrete values (226)
 Quantum assumption
 When an electron moves from an orbit close to the nucleus to an orbit far from the nucleus, we say that the electron has been _________. (226)
 Excited
 When an electron moves from an orbit far from the nucleus to an orbit close to the nucleus, we say it has _________. (227)
 De-excited
 The modern-day model of the atom in which electrons whirl around the nucleus in various paths called “orbitals.” (228)
 Quantum mechanical model
 A specif shape that confines the position of an electron relative to the nucleus. (228)
 Orbital
 Spherical-shaped orbital
 s orbital
 Dumb-bell shaped orbital.  There are none of these on the first energy level of the atom.
 p orbital
 All forms of matter try to stay in this state. (231)
 Lowest possible energy state (also known as “ground state”)
 The lowest possible energy state for a given substance (232)
 Ground state
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