Midterm Review Flashcard Essay
East Asia Midterm Review Amateratsu: a part of the Japanese myth cycle and also a major deity of the Shinto religion. She is the goddess of the sun, but also of the universe. Daughter of god Izanaghi. Created 8 islands. The Emperor of Japan is said to be a direct descendant of Amaterasu. Tangun: mythological first king of the Koreans, the grandson of Hwanin, the creator, and the son of Hwanung, who fathered his child by breathing on a beautiful young woman. Tangun reportedly became king in 2333bc. Hwanung left heaven to rule Earth from atop Mt.
T’aebaek (Daebaik). When a bear and a tiger xpressed a wish to become human beings, he ordered the beasts into a cave for 100 days and gave orders that they were to eat only mugwort and garlic and avoid the sunlight. The tiger soon grew impatient and left the cave, but the bear remained and after three weeks was transformed into a beautiful woman. It was she who became the mother of Tangun. The myth is important inasmuch as it links the Korean people with a heavenly origin. Mandate of Heaven: way for a ruler to derive legitimacy.
Core concept of Chinese political history that goes back to the first historical dynasty Shang, no writing system and history before that). Zhou made it to all families. Heaven gives rulers the right to rule because they are virtuous rulers; rule is conditional and ruler can lose the mandate if he becomes corrupt, at which point someone better suited can take over. Because heaven gives the ruler the right to rule, they have control over all land and all people in it, but people can revolt if unjust. Civil Service Examination: Started in Sui Dynasty China.
With a centralized bureaucracy need to come good/virtuous officials; done through civil service exams to liminate the great families and allocate very high status Jobs. Synthesis between legalism and Confucianism: exam (quality/skill) but on Confucian principles. Created a lot of social mobility because it was open to anyone with any education. Created elite gentry class (anyone who passed these exams). Standardized written language and political thought because everyone had to study Confucians texts and not anything practical.
In Korea, exams were adopted during the Choson dynasty, which was founded by Confucian educated reformists; wanted to stop power and orruption of aristocracy but access to exams more limited than in China and those that passed were from leading families. Compared to Han where paternalism and families controlled. Koguryo: Shogun: was often one of the hereditary military governors of Japan from 1192 to 1867; ruling warrior class. In this period, the shoguns, or their shikken regents (1203- 1333), were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally appointed by the emperor and hence got their legitimacy from him.
Line of power ran from the shogun, to the feudal lord daimyo, to the samurai living in the daimyos han domain. Summurai where also schooled in Confucianism, the arts, and politics, and had roles of civil servants. The shogun’s officials (daimyo) and his tent government were as a collective the bakufu, and were those who carried out the actual duties of administration while the Imperial court retained only nominal authority. Before Hideyoshi the daimyo had a lot of independent power and Japan was decentralized spirituality of Japan and the people of Japan.
It is a set of practices, to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. 1] Not unified “Shinto religion”, but rather to disorganized folklore, history, and mythology.  Shinto today is a term that applies to public shrines suited to various purposes such as war memorials, harvest festivals, romance, and historical monuments, as well as various sectarian organizations. Animism, worship of kami (spirits, natural forces). Indigenous religion related to creation myth.
Widespread belief system of shamanism, where humans are mediators between our world and the supernatural; god in every natural object ex river, mountain, tree lmJin War: 1591-1598 during Choson dynasty in Korea. The first “regional war” in East Asia; China, Japan, and Korea all fought on Korean soil. The first time three countries fought on land and sea and firearms were used. Anti-Japanese sentiment emerged with this war. Invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering Joseon Dynasty Korea and Ming Dynasty China.
Choson king fled to Manchuria in initial invasion and people had to establish militias and defend themselves because Korean army failed to. The Japanese forces experienced success during both initial phases of the invasion, capturing both Seoul and Pyongyang, but ontinuous defeats at sea, logistical difficulties, and the numerical superiority of the combined Ming and Joseon armies, and death of Hideyoshi, eventually resulted in a withdrawal towards coastal areas and a military stalemate. ? Yi Sunshin (Turtle boats): a Korean naval commander (yangban class), famed for his victories against the Japanese naw during the lmJin war in the Joseon Dynasty, and is well-respected for his exemplary conduct on and off the battlefield not only by Koreans, but by Japanese Admirals as well. Outnumbered 333 ships to 13, and forced into a last stand ith only his minimal fleet standing between the Japanese Army and Seoul, Yi delivered one of the most astonishing defeats in military history.
Designer of turtle boats; attached Japanese as they crossed strait to go back to Japan and resupply. Turtle Boat: a type of large Korean warship that was used intermittently by the Royal Korean Navvy during the Joseon Dynasty from the early 1 5th century up until the 19th century in the fight against invading Japanese naval ships. The ship’s name derives from its protective copper shell-like covering. Created by Yi Sunshin, equipped with t least five different types of cannons.