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Midterm Exam Analysis

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Match the descriptions with the appropriate terms Changes in the genetic code of a cell Stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies Tumor, or growth of new tissue Excision of tissue for microscopic examination
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Mutation antigen neoplasm biopsy
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The symptoms and signs of anemia include
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all of the above.
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Mechanical and chemical barriers, the inflammatory response, and the immune response are
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included in the body’s natural defense system against infection.
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Rh factor incompatibility occurs when the mother through prior pregnancy has become sensitized to the Rh factor of the fetal red blood cells.
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True
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Closure of patent ductus arteriosus may be achieved by medication or by surgical closure of the ductus.
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True
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Which of the following correctly states the sequence of an allergic response within the body most?
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Exposure to allergen stimulates production of IgE antibodies that can subsequently trigger symptoms of allergy.
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Cystic fibrosis (CF), a chronic dysfunction of the exocrine glands, primarily attacks the
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lungs and digestive system.
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Necrotizing enterocolitis is an acute inflammatory process resulting from ischemic necrosis of the lining of the bronchial tubes
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False
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Congenital diseases are
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none of the above.
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Which of the following most accurately states the orderly steps in making a diagnosis?
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Medical history, physical examination, diagnostic tests, integration of results, diagnosis, treatment
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Signs of disease
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include abnormal objective findings.
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Causes of infantile colic may be
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all of the above.
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PKU is an inborn error in metabolism of amino acids causing brain damage and mental retardation when not corrected.
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True
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Which of the following statements is(are) true about erythroblastosis fetalis?
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Antibodies in the mother’s blood destroy the red blood cells of the fetus. It is characterized in the fetus by anemia, jaundice, and enlargement of the liver and spleen Both a and b are true.
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The normal protective physiologic response(s) to tissue injury and disease is(are)
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acute inflammation.
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mmunodeficiency disorders result from
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a depressed or absent immune response.
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Because anemia is a symptom of various diseases, it is important to determine the cause of the anemia.
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True
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Pain may be described as
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dull and aching, burning, or throbbing. shooting, dull, stabbing. frightening, intense, tiring. O all of the above.
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Conditions often resulting from premature birth include
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necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), infantile respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), and retinopathy of prematurity.
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Leukemia is characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of immature white blood cells.
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False
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The diagnostic investigation of a congenital heart defect may include
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physical examination and patient history. radiographic studies of the chest and blood tests. heart catheterization and electrocardiogram. O all of the above.
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Congenital hip dysplasia
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is an abnormal development of the hip joint.
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Prompt and complete treatment of acute tonsillitis caused by Group A Beta-hemolytic streptococci is necessary to prevent
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rheumatic fever. rheumatic heart disease. kidney complications. all of the above.
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Benign tumors
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tend to remain encapsulated.
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Childhood immunizations are important because
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they prevent epidemics of serious contagious diseases.
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A history of repeated, chronic infections, which includes sinopulmonary symptoms (e.g., sinus tenderness, cough, fever, runny nose, abnormal sputum, dyspnea) along with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss), is usually indicative of
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common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID).
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When the immune system reacts appropriately to an antigen and homeostasis is maintained it is termed
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immunocompetence.
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There are no cures for collagen diseases, and treatment is only palliative.
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True
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The primary treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is
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reduction of inflammation and pain. preservation of joint function. prevention of joint deformity. all of the above.
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HIV is primarily transmitted through sexual contact and through contaminated blood and blood products.
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True
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Symptoms of fever, joint pain, malaise, weight loss, and the characteristic butterfly rash are indications of
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systemic lupus erythematosus.
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Tolerance to self-antigens is believed to commence during fetal life.
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True
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mmunoglobulins that provide the ability to recognize foreign organisms stimulating the antigen-antibody reaction are called
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B-cells.
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Injections of vitamin B12, which must be continued for life, are the primary treatment for pernicious anemia.
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True
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Decreased gastric production of hydrochloric acid and the resulting shortage of the intrinsic factor cause
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Pernicious anemia.
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Opportunistic infections can emerge as a result of deficiencies of the immune system
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True
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With proper therapy the prognosis for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is
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generally good.
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A chronic, progressive neuromuscular disease that is characterized by extreme muscular weakness (generally appearing first in the face) and progressive fatigue is
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myasthenia gravis.
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An autoimmune condition in which erythrocytes are destroyed by antibodies causing the patient to experience fatigue, chills, fever, dyspnea, and jaundice is
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autoimmune hemolytic anemia
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Autoimmune diseases occur when autoantibodies develop and begin to destroy the body’s own cells.
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True
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The group of diseases that occur when antibodies develop and begin to destroy the body’s own cells is
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autoimmune diseases.
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The disease that begins with inflammation and edema of the synovial membranes surrounding the joint is
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rheumatoid arthritis.
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Pyridostigmine bromide (Mestinon) is the drug of choice for treatment of
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myasthenia gravis.
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Prevention measures for HIV infection relate directly to avoiding risk factors such as hugging, touching, and handshaking
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False
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All patients with HIV will develop full-blown AIDS.
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False
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A child in the emergency room with multiple bruising of unknown cause and thrombocytopenia may be exhibiting signs of
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idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
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Autoimmune diseases occur only in the blood and lymphatic systems.
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False
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The patient with a platelet deficiency and the inability of blood to clot has
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idiopathic thrombocytopenic anemia.
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The acquired immunity that results when a person has a disease is
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active.
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A chronic, progressive, systemic autoimmune disease of the skin that is characterized by hardening and shrinking of the skin is
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systemic scleroderma.
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The insertion of a tympanostomy tube as a treatment for otitis media is called
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myringotomy.
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Polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, weight loss, and fatigue are the principal symptoms of
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diabetes mellitus.
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Diabetes, which has its onset during pregnancy, is called
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gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
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Treatment of diabetes mellitus includes
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a calculated diet and exercise. insulin administration if needed. blood and urine testing. all of the above.
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Dwarfism is the abnormal underdevelopment of the body, or hypopituitarism, occurring in children.
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True
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A deficiency in the release of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) by the posterior pituitary gland causes
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diabetes insipidus
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A congenital hypothyroid condition that causes mental and growth retardation in the infant or young child is called
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cretinism.
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The person experiencing insulin shock requires simple sugar.
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True
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Ankylosing of the stapes is called
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otosclerosis.
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Insulin and glucagon are produced by the
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pancreas.
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Dysfunction of the endocrine system results in decreased or increased secretion of hormones.
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True
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Adrenal insufficiency, with progressive destruction of the adrenal gland, is called
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Addison disease.
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Which of the following statements is true about chronic open-angle glaucoma.
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t is the most treatable cause of blindness.
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Macular degeneration is
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caused by degenerative changes in the retina. usually related to aging.
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A defect in the ____ results in difficulty in visual detection of color and fine detail.
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cones
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The master gland of the endocrine system is the
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pituitary gland.
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Hypersecretion of human growth hormone (hGH) by the pituitary before puberty resulting in abnormal and accelerated growth is called
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none of the above.
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Early symptoms of retinal detachment consist of
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new floaters and light flashes.
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Which of the following statement(s) is(are) true about nystagmus?
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It necessitates a complete neurologic evaluation when acquired.
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Symptoms of neoplasms of the ear commonly include
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progressive hearing loss and discharge from the ear. a visible mass or lesion. facial paralysis. all of the above.
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The sensor receptive cells in the retina that function best in dim light and enable night vision are the
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rods.
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A cloudy or opaque area in the normally clear lens of the eye is called a
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cataract.
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A chronic disease of the inner ear marked by a recurring syndrome of vertigo, tinnitus, progressive hearing loss, and a sensation of pressure in the ear is called
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Ménière’s disease
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The syndrome caused by hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, which results in excessive circulating cortisol levels, fatigue, muscular weakness, and changes in body appearance is called
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Cushing syndrome.
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Placement of sharp objects into the ear canal, an explosion, a severe middle ear infection, or a blow to the ear could result in
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a ruptured tympanic membrane.
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_ is a type of inflammation of the skin that tends to occur in persons with a family history of allergic conditions.
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Atopic dermatitis (eczema)
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A bone that is normally in contact with a joint but becomes separated from that joint causing loss of joint function is a
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dislocation.
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Appearance and location of the lesions confirm the diagnosis of each of the three types of skin carcinoma.
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False
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Itch mites and lice spread easily from one person to another by close physical contact.
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True
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Causes of alopecia (baldness) include
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chemotherapy and other medications. aging and heredity factors. certain systemic diseases. all of the above.
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A fracture is the same as a broken bone.
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True
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An unpleasant sensation or complication that sometimes follows the removal of an appendage is called
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phantom limb.
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The ABCDEs of malignant melanoma include
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asymmetry, border, color, diameter, and elevation.
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Which of the following statements is(are) true about osteoporosis?
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Osteoporosis is a silent disease until a bone breaks to cause pain.
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A strong, tough strand or cord of dense connective tissue that serves as attachment for muscle to bone is
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a tendon.
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____ is an abscess that involves the entire hair follicle and adjacent subcutaneous tissue.
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A furuncle
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The following statement(s) about fibromyalgia is(are) true.
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It is a painful debilitating syndrome that causes chronic pain in muscles and soft tissues surrounding joints. The cause is unknown. Diagnosis includes pain at specific tender points. All of the above are true.
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nflammation of the bursae is called polymyositis.
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False
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The following statement(s) is(are) true about scabies and pediculosis.
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They are two most common parasitic infections to infest man.
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The treatment of erysipelas (cellulitis) includes
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immobilization, elevation, compresses, and antibiotics.
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____ is a hereditary group of conditions of the connective tissue that causes an abnormal growth of the extremities. Cardiovascular complications are common.
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Marfan syndrome
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____ is an eruption of extremely painful vesicles that occur in a bandlike unilateral pattern along the course of a peripheral nerve.
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Herpes zoster
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Ninety-five percent of all skin carcinomas result from chronic overexposure to the sun.
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True
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Wasting away or deterioration of muscle is called
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atrophy.
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The onset of a stiff and painful shoulder after injury or a period of disuse is typical of
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a frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis).
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Chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease of bones and joints caused by degenerative changes in the cartilage is called
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osteoarthritis.
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Match the descriptions with the appropriate terms. Bone is fractured, and one end is wedged into the end of the adjoining bone. Bone is fractured by pressure from another bone. Bone is broken without an open wound to the skin. Bone is splintered or crushed Bone is fractured as a result of disease.
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Impacted fracture Compression fracture Simple fracture Comminuted fracture Pathologic fracture
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The most common premalignant tumors are
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actinic keratosis and nevi.
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____ is an injury that is the result of overuse, overstretching, or forcible stretching of a muscle beyond its functional capacity. It sometimes involves a tendon or ligament.
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Strain
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Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea pedis and tinea cruris are manifestations of
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dermatophytosis.