## Midterm

 Safety goggles must be worn
 At all times
 Waste chemicals are to be disposed
 In the properly labeled waste container
 Make sure when heating a liquid that there is a
 boiling stone
 Eating and drinking is
 Never allowed in the lab
 If there is a fire
 Yell fire and alert instructor and pull fire alarm if it is a large fire and evacuate the building
 If a person is on fire
 Go to the safety shower
 If chemicals spill on your body
 Wash your hands and arms immediately with water or go to the safety shower if the chemicals are on your body and wash your eyes at the eye wash station for 15-30 minutes if chemicals are in your eyes
 The uncertainty in electronic measuring tools is
 +/- 1 in the final digit displayed
 The uncertainty of a digital thermometer is
 +/- 0.1 degrees C
 The uncertainty of a 20 mL cylinder is
 +/- 0.1 mL
 The uncertainty of a 400 mL beaker is
 +/- 5 mL
 The uncertainty of a burette is
 +/- 0.01 mL
 The uncertainty of a thermometer is
 +/- 0.2 degrees C
 The uncertainty of a ruler with mm is
 +/- 0.01 cm
 In addition and subtraction the amount of significant figures
 Is rounded off to have the same number of decimal places as the number of decimal places in the most uncertain data used
 In multiplication and division, the amount of significant figures is
 Rounded off to have the same number of significant figures as the number of significant figures in the measured quantity with the least number of significant figures
 If the air inlets of a Bunsen burner is opened, the flame goes from
 Yellow to blue
 A solution is added to a burette by
 Holding the burette in an almost horizontal positon and allowing the liquid to run down the side of the burette while rotating the burette alone it long axis to allow the liquid to contact all parts of the inner surface of the burette
 Properties whose values depend on the amount of sample or material. Examples are mass and volume.
 Extensive physical properties
 Properties whose values are independent of the amount or size of the sample. Examples are pressure and temperature.
 Intensive physical properties
 The mass per unit volume. Two extensive variables lead to and intensive one.
 Density d = m/V
 Defined for liquids and solids as the ratio of the density of a material divided by the density of water. The temperature of the water is often 4 degrees C. No units.
 Specific gravity SGx = dx/dwater
 The volume of a cube is
 V = a^3, a = length of a side of the cube
 The volume of a sphere is
 V = 4/3?r^3, r = radius of sphere
 The volume of a right cylinder is
 V = ?r^2h, r = radius of circular cross section, h = height of the cylinder
 To gauge the uncertainty in a volume measurement
 The possible maximum and minimum values for the quantity based on the uncertainty in the original measurements must be calculated
 The volume in a graduated cylinder is found by
 Taking the difference between the initial volume and the volume with the object
 The largest volume displacement is found by
 Subtracting the largest final volume reading (+0.1) from the smallest initial volume reading (-0.1)
 The smallest volume displacement is found by
 Subtracting the smallest final volume reading (-0.1) from the largest initial volume reading (+0.1)
 The largest value of the density is found by
 Dividing the largest mass (+0.1) by the smallest volume of liquid delivered (-0.1)
 The smallest value of the density of the liquid is found by
 Dividing the smallest mass (-0.1) by the largest volume of liquid delivered (+0.1)
 Relative error is
 part per thousand relative error = ((dn – dave)/dave)*1000
 Dalton’s atomic theory was consistent with
 The experimental laws of definite composition and multiple proportions that gave it great credibility
 For mole ratios
 One divides the moles of each component by the number of moles of the component with the lesser or least number of moles
 The formula derived from the mole ratios. Example: 1 mole Fe and 3 moles of Br yields the formula FeBr3
 The empirical formula
 The amount of a product formed when 100% of the limiting reactant is converted to product
 The theoretical yield
 The amount of a product formed during a chemical reaction
 The actual yield
 ((actual yield)/(theoretical yield))100
 Percent yield
 What is the proper method to separate mixtures
 Using a filter flask, Buchner funnel, aspirator set up
 Substances with the ability to react with both acids and bases are
 Amphoteric
 Double sulfate salts that contain two different ionic sulfate compounds in a defined ratio. Are typically hydrated compounds containing a stoichiometric amount of water molecules.
 Alum
 Compounds with molecules of water involved in their formula. Some of the water molecules in these compounds may be chemically bonded to the metal atoms by coordinate covalent bonds.
 Hydrates
 |measured – accepted|/accepted (100%)Used for accuracyaccepted = true or standard of comparison valuesmaller = greatest accuracylarger = least accurate
 Percent error
 Truthfulness or closeness to an accepted value, on average
 Accuracy
 Repeatability of successive measurements
 Precision
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