## Midterm 1

 Atom
 Discovered by Dalton
 Nucleus
 Discovered by E. Rutherford and Niels Bohr
 Periodic Table
 Dmitri Mendeleev arranged/organized first periodicity of elements
 Electrons
 Discovered by J. J. Thomson
 Chemistry
 The study of matter, its properties, the changes that matter undergoes and the energy assosiated with those changes
 Matter
 Anything that has mass and volume
 Composition
 types and amounts of simpler substances that make up a sample of matter
 Properties
 Characteristics that give each substance a unique identity
 Physical Properties
 Those that a substance shows without interaction with another substanceex: color, melting point, boiling point, and density
 Chemical Properties
 Those that show once interacted with or transformed into another substanceex: flamability, corrosiveness
 Mass
 kilogram (kg)
 Length
 meter (m)
 Temperature
 kelvin (K)
 Electric current
 ampere (A)
 Amount of Substance
 mole (mol)
 Also known as Celcius (C*)
 Multiplication/Division Sig Figs
 Number of sig figs in the result equals the number in the least precise measurement used in the calculation
 Number of sig figs in the result depends on number of decimal places in least accurate measurement
 Accuracy
 agreement between measured value and accepted value
 Precision
 agreement between repeated measurements
 Atomic Mass
 Number of ProtonsAlso Number of Neutrons
 Isotope
 atoms of an element with same number of protons, but different number of neutrons
 1 mole = 6.022×10^23 particles
 Frequency
 The number of cycles the wave undergoes per second, expressed in units of 1/second = s^-1 = Hz
 Wavelength
 Distance between any point on a wave and the corresponding point on the next crest (or trough) of the waveex: the distance the wave travels during 1 cycle
 Amplitude
 The height of the crest or depth of the troughAlso known as intensity
 Angstrom
 10^-10 m
 Speed of Light (c)
 c = (frequency)(wavelength)
 Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Highest Energy starting from the leftex: gamma raysLongest Wavelength starting from rightex: radio waves
 Max Planck
 Developed Quantum Theory to descrive properties of light based on the idea the energy is absorbed and emitted in discrete quanta
 Planck’s Constant
 h = 6.626×10^-34
 Energy
 E = nhvwhere E is energy, h is planck’s constant, and v is the frequency
 hv
 the difference between each energy state is the (frequency)(planck’s constant)
 Minimum Energy
 a photon of minimum E must be absorbed for an e- to be freed. E depends on frequency
 Work Function
 symbol = O w/ vertical line through it*also equals (h)(v w/ 0 as subscript)minimum energy required to release e- from metal surface
 Kinetic Energy
 KE = (hv) – (work function)
 Quantized state
 discrete energy levels(looks like stair steps)
 Continuum states
 smooth transition between levels(looks like a ramp)
 Bohr Model
 E of photon = (E of state a) – (E of state b) = hvChange in E = (E:final)-(E:initial)Also = hv = hc/wavelength
 Ground & Excited States
 Increase = absorption (gain) of energyDecrease = emission (loss) of energy
 Rydberg Equation
 1/wavelength = R {1/n1^2 – 1/n2^2}where R is the Rydberg Constant (1.096776×10^7 m^-1)
 De Broglie Equation
 E = mc^2Combine w/ E = hv = hc/wavelength to get wavelength = h/mu where m is mass and u is speed
 Momentum (p)
 wavelength = h/mc = h/p andp = h/wavelngth
 Wave Function
 Describes motion of electron waves as they vary with location and timeWave function squared defines the orbital of high probability for locating an electron
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