MGMT 417 – CHAP 2 NIU, Change Management, Dr. Bishop

Change Agent
an external expert management consultant who was paid to work out what was going wrong in an organization and to implement change to put things right
Change Manager & Change Leader
used synonymously unless there is a reason for making a distinction
Mental Images
internal mental images that we have that influence our expectations and interpretations about what is happening and what we think needs to change
The Six Images of Change Management
Director, Navigator, Caretaker (Controlling, roles & activities) | Coach, Interpreter, Nuturer (Shaping, enhancing capabilities)
Management as Controlling
the historical image as manager – planning, organizing, supervising, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. “Top-down” hierarchical view of management
soft factors of management
culture, leadership, motivation – do not significantly affect the success of organizational change
hard factors of management
1. companies can measure in direct/indirect ways 2. companies can communicate their importance both within and outside organizations 3. businesses are capable of influencing these elements quickly
Management as Shaping
based on “human relations” encourages involvement in decision making 1. closer to the action, the better understanding of how to improve 2. staff more likely to commit change if they designed some of it
Intended Change Outcomes
intended change outcomes can be achieved as planned
Empirical Rational Strategies
assume that people pursue their own self-interest. Change can happen when it is in the interest of the group
Normative re-educative Strategies
assume that changes occur when people abandon their traditional normative orientations and commit to new ways of thinking.
power-coercive strategies
rely on achieving the intended outcomes through the compliant behavior of those who have less power
Partially Intended Change Outcomes
some, but not all, planned change outcomes are achievable. Power, processes, interests, and skill levels of managers affect the ability to produce intended outcomes. Intended and unintended outcomes will emerge from change managers
Unintended Change Outcomes
managers often have difficulty in achieving the change outcomes that were intended.
Unintended Internals
interdepartmental politics, long-established working practices, deep-seated perceptions and values inconsistent with desired change.
Unintended Externals
confrontational industrial relations, legislative docs, industry trends affecting entire sector
Director (Controlling Intended)
views controlling and change outcomes as being achievable as planned. steer organization towards desired outcomes.
Navigator (Some Intended Controlling)
Control at the heart, external factors can influence how much control they have over other results. Encourage staff involvement
Caretaker (Controlling Unintended)
internal and external forces propel change relatively independent to managements intentions. Life cycle theory, birth, growth, maturity, decline/death of organizations
Developmental Stage (life cycle stages)
Founder initiates an idea – make sure resources are available, establishes market niche, design processes to aid innovation and creativity, ensure founder generates commitment to vision
Collectivity Stage (life cycle stages)
Coordination through informal means as group identity develops – coordinate communication and decision making, build cohesion and morale with goals and culture, develop skills through appropriate reward systems
Formalization Stage (life cycle stages)
Formalization of operations, emphasizing rules and procedures, efficiency and stability – facilitate shift to professional management, monitor internal operations and external environment, focus procedures on efficiency and quality, strike balance between autonomy coordination and control
Elaboration Stage (life cycle stages)
Change and renewal as structure becomes more complex and environmental changes – adapt current products and develop new ones, ensure structures facilitates divisional coordination, plan for turnaround cutbacks and renewal
Population Ecology Theory
how environment selects organizations for survival or extinction – perceive change as variation (random chance), selection (environmental best fit), and retention (forces that counteract variation and selection)
Institutional Theory
change managers make similar decisions across populations of organizations – coercive (social, cultural, and gov-mandated), mimetic (imitates others in field), normative (adopt similar values/methods across organizations)
Coach (Shaping Intended)
intentionally shape the organizations capabilities in particular ways
Interpreter (Some Intended Shaping)
has the task of creating meaning for others, helping them to make sense of events and developments that constitute a changed organizations
Nuturer (Shaping Unintended)
assumes that even small changes can have a large impact on organizations and that managers may be unable to control the outcomes of these changes

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