Metabolism – Vitamins

List the Water-soluble Vitamins.
Thaimine (TPP)
Riboflavin (FAD)
Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)(NAD, NADP)
Lipoic Acid
Pantothenic Acid – B5
Pyridoxine (pyrodoxal and pyridoxamine)-B6
Biotin
Folic Acid
Cobalamine – B12
Ascorbic Acid – Vitamin C
What is the function of the 5 following Water-soluble Vitamins?

Thiamine (TPP)
Riboflavin (FAD)-B2
Niacin (nicotinic acid)-B3
Lipoic Acid
Pantothenic Acid – B5

THIAMINE (TPP)
-enzyme that helps decarboxylate pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate in TCA cycle
-Thiamine allows food to go into the TCA cycle and make ATP
-When a person is deficient in thiamine, they rely only on glycoslysis

RIBOFLAVIN (FAD) -B2
-active in electron transmission and is a current carrier in energy production

NIACIN (nicotinic acid) -B3
-Component of NAD+
-Active in electron transmission and is a current carrier in energy production
-structure simliar to nicotine, but very different functions

LIPOIC ACID
-once passed off by CoA in reactions, it is an acyl carrier in dehydrogenase reactions

PANTOTHENIC ACID -B5
-component of coenzyme A
-essential for entry of acyl groups into the TCA cycle

What is the function of the 5 following Water-soluble Vitamins?

Pyridoxine (pyridoxal and pyridoxamine)-B6
Biotin
Folic Acid
Cobalamine-B12
Ascorbic Acid – Vitamin C

PYRIDOXINE – B6
-pyridoxal essential for amino acid metabolism
-useful in pyridoxal form and asociated with its enzyme by using Schiff base

BIOTIN
-prosthetic group held by peptide bond for caroxylation reactions, which add carboxyl groups

FOLIC ACID
-one carbon donor in biosynthesis reactions; passes around methyl group of methionine
-recommended for pregnant women to decrease risk of spina bifida in newborns

COBALAMINE – B12
-composed of a ring structure, like hemoglobin, but uses cobalt metal instead of iron.
-essential for metabolism of branched chain amino acids

ASCORBIC ACID – Vitamin C
-essential for hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues in collagen chains.
-good general reducing agent; provides H+ to drive oxidative phosphorylation
-could possibly eat only vitamin C and still stay alive (not recommended)

What are 4 noted Fat-soluble vitamins and what are their functions?
VITAMIN A
-split from beta-carotene
*Retinal-associated with visual proteins (rhodopsin)
*Retinol-maintenance of healty epithelial tisues (Retin-A)

VITAMIN D
-cholecalciferol (D3), also a D which we did not learn about
-calcium absorption in GI tract and secretion of phosphate in kidneys.
-deficiency can cause rickets (osteomalacia), which is a bowing of bones, especially the lower extremeities
-made by sunlight hitting skin
-darker skin will decrease the uptake of UV rays that help make Vitamin D.
-Can have Vitamin D deficiency if person is never outside or if a child is being nursed by a mother who is never outside or is dark-skinned.

VITAMIN E – alpha-tocopherol
-proposed reducing agent
-not sure of function in humans
-also possible anti-plague agent in blood vessels. not supported by study

VITAMIN K
-used for carboxylation of specific glutamyl residues in proteins (glutamic acid), which activates the clotting cascade

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