Meditation and Stress Management Essay
Meditation and Stress Management Essay

Meditation and Stress Management Essay

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  • Pages: 29 (7851 words)
  • Published: December 29, 2021
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Abstract

Meditation is a mechanism which is used to boost personal consciousness with a view of relieving the brain from stresses accruing from day-to-day activities. It is a dual exercise requiring physical and psychological activities to be engaged by individuals with an aim of inducing consciousness which leads to body relaxation and internal energy promotion. This research on meditation had three main objectives which sought to define and delineate the benefits attached to meditation techniques, their relation with workplace performance and how these activities enhances productivity. Existing literature review as discussed showed that meditation has positive impacts on individuals who engage in it. Identification and explanation of the various types of meditation was also thoroughly done.

This study on meditation, engaged 50 taxi drivers who were grouped in two categories A and B. Each category comprised of 25 drivers. Category

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A drivers underwent a two-week meditation while the other was used as the control group. After this process there was formulation of hypothesis and data collected on how the two groups served their customers. The research found that taxi drivers who were exposed to meditation had the best services to their customers. The customers also promised to use their services in future. Generally, mindfulness meditation helped the 25 drivers to improve their customer-worker relations and this ultimately improved the overall performance at workplace.

Introduction

Individuals use various mechanisms in inducing personal consciousness especially when under pressure or stress. In the modern life people have been engaging in actions which expose them in to torturing conditions due to over work from the workplace. Giluk (2009) explains that, such hectic conditions contribute to frustrating moments, tiredness and consequently interfere with happiness

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Our health is one of the major aspects which are highly affected when one fails to give attention to distracting factors. Clinical psychologists have devised various methods to deal with hectic demands in modern life and purposely to effect performance in work place. Among the identified approaches to deal with distraction include both physical and psychological modes (Zeidan et al, 2010). Failure to give full attention to self-consciousness based on stress triggered from the daily activities, consequent results include development of health hazards of diseases such blood pressure and other health complexities (Tang et al, 2015). Meditation is the most influential and effect mechanism used to boost personal or individual consciousness to relieve the body and brain from stress from daily activities. according to Dane (2014),meditation refers to dual exercise which acquires both physical and psychological activities or practices in which an individual engage the mind attention for the purpose of inducing ones consciousness leading to body relation and internal energy promotion.

Dane (2014) observed that, the term meditation has several meanings depending on the contextual scope such as values, culture beliefs, and religion among others however in this paper, the term will be used to implicate the mechanisms or a technique which involves adoption of internal effort to help in regulating the mind especially when there need to gain or impose the developed compassion. People engage in meditation practices to do away with the issues in the brain or mind and also address the health concerns which may be associated with over worked brain (Giluk, 2009). There are different types of meditation which are use depending on the purpose of engagement. Particularly, this paper is

engaging in mindfulness type of meditation to investigate how such practices influence work performance. In other words the paper will be exploring the effects of mindfulness mediation on work performance. In the last two decades, psychological community and western medical clinics have researched several mindfulness based strategies or programs to be applied by mental health and other relevant professionals in helping the community members. Scholars have shown that, meditation practices are advisable and good for both sick and health individuals, so long as one is involved in daily activities, there is need to incorporate this exercise for self-consciousness.

According to Giluk (2009), mindfulness is closed related to mental silence form of meditation since both embrace on the correlation brain and the wave activity. In addition, when one is engaging in two there is a moment of switching off the irrelevant networks of the brain to triggers consciousness for the purpose of emotional wellbeing of an individual. Therefore it is a psychological therapy which employs empirical concepts of psychological medicine that origin and background is based on Buddhism culture and tradition. Tactically and professionally, mindfulness meditation has a well-structured procedure which should be adhered for one to enjoy effective and reasonable outcome (Tang et al, 2015). The chronology of mindfulness meditation involves sitting on a cushion placed on a long chair and then lying when your back is straight, thereafter you close eyes.Dane, E. (2014),observed that, while in this position, attention is supposed to focus on the abdominal movement and breathing mechanisms. From this exercise, one is able to create special awareness to feelings, actions, thoughts and general reflection of the daily activities.Zeidanet al (2010) recommended that,

one to at least take a minimum of ten minutes daily for this special exercise.

Apart from the health purpose of meditation, organization explicitly benefits from largely from general knowledge about meditation. Researchers have discovered that, some of the US citizens prefer procedural medication which involves some psychological and physical exercise rather than use of prescribed medication from the healthcare centers (Tang et al, 2015). Therefore, despite people’s engagement in meditation to prevent high blood pressure, diabetes and depression among other critical conditions, it also plays a vital role in improving the general performance in workplace. Regarding this ideology or concept, Work Research Foundation have suggested that, stress free working environment increase organizational productivity (Giluk, 2009). Many organizations and individuals embrace on mindfulness meditation sensitization and training programs as a strategy to help their employees to cope or regain their self-consciousness after heavy working days. Therefore, the specific hypothesis in this paper is that, engaging in mindfulness meditation exercise has great impact on the productivity or performance in work whether self-employed or employed by organization. To accomplish the key scope of this research study, an experiment has been conducted using mytaxi company employees. This is a Germany based company which facilitates payments of taxi services through smartphones. Particularly, 50 mytaxiemployees will be conducted in which there group will be divided into two parts each 25 people. One group will be subjected into mindfulness mediation techniques while the other group will not; it will be the control experiment. Thereafter analysis will be made to compare the results. The research aims at addressing the following research questions:

  1. What are the explicit benefits of engaging in mindfulness meditation techniques?
  • What are the effects of mindfulness mediation regarding the work performance and productivity?
  • How mindfulness meditation techniques do contributes to improvement of work performance?
  • Literature Review

    Mindfulness and Mental Effects

    According to Kabat-Zinn(2013), mindfulness can be used as a treatment of mental-illness in individuals as well as a means of enhancing one’s wellbeing of his or her mental health. Cognitive therapy based on mindfulness can be used in recurring of depression and stress (Hasson, 2013). One of the most common forms of meditation is mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness is causing thorough and ample review by various numbers of researchers to determine how it might affect one mentally. `vipasssana’ is a pali word which is used to mean insight mindfulness, this form of meditation is a traditional practice by Buddhist which is back dated to 6th century BC. There are various health benefits that are associated with mindfulness. In reference to Hasson(2013), the health effect to brain that comes up as a result of mindfulness has triggered research on clinical findings.
    From a study about mental effects sunk cost bias and mindfulness, it was analyzed that this is termed as the tendency to pursue a goal that is being considered as failure (Eberth, &Sedlmeier, 2012). Mindfulness has the capability of diverting one’s focus from his or her past which in turn decreases ones strength and of effectiveness of sunk cost bias. In reference to Hasson(2013), the role played by mindfulness differs with respect to how an individual deems an endeavor, either as a failure or as a success. Mindfulness affects an individuals working memory capacity which is responsible for managing and regulating an individual’s emotions and cognitive demands (Zeidanet al, 2014).

    Constant and wide demands such as during instances of high stress deplete the working memory capacity which in turn causes cognitive failure (Kabat-Zinn, 2013). When mindfulness increases it translates to an increase in working memory capacity.

    An individual’s mindfulness counteracts functional impairment that occurs as a result of persistent demands (Krygieret al, 2013). Mindfulness practice boosts the ability of a person to connect as well as understanding various types of people. Mindfulness also enhances attentiveness among individuals (Gordon, 2013). It also boosts the mental ability that enables one to concentrate at one thing at a time. Mindfulness brings about a deeper awareness of other people’s feeling as well as developing one’s ability to take situation from other person perspective (Eberth &Sedlmeier, 2012).

    Mindfulness ensures that mental processes are brought under voluntary control which in turns fosters calmness and mental well-being (Eberth &Sedlmeier, 2012). Mindfulness meditation is responsible for increased metacognitive awareness and reduces rumination. A person’s ability to have increased focus as well as avoiding distractors is enhanced by mindfulness meditation (Krygieret al, 2013). Comparing two groups, one with an experience of mindfulness meditation and another without, the meditation group will have a higher level of attention and concentration as compared to non-meditation group.

    The higher the level of mindfulness meditation is the less emotional reactivity (Eberth &Sedlmeier, 2012). Mindfulness enable individuals to disengage from emotional upsets enabling thus to have an increased focus on cognitive tasks (Hasson, 2013). Mindfulness meditation increases the level of cognitive flexibility as it develops self-observation skills. These skills neurologically disengage automatic pathways created via prior learning thus allowing integration of present moment inputs in another way different from the old one (Krygieret

    al, 2013). Brain regions linked increased adaptive responses to negative and stressful instances are activated by mindfulness meditation. Activation of these regions encourages easy and faster recovery from negative provokes. Mindfulness meditation enables and individual’s mind to have a good ability of responding to relationship stress (Kabat-Zinn, 2013). It also enhances skills of communicating emotions to one’s partner. According to Hasson (2013), mindfulness meditation boosts the functioning of middle prefrontal lobe region of the brain which enhances fear modulation, morality, intuition and self- insight. Mindfulness meditation increases the brain’s speed at which it processes information.
    According to Krygieret al, 2013), mindfulness meditation acts a measure of preserving aging brains. Comparing aging meditators and non-meditators, aging meditators have highly preserved brains. It also reduces the brain’s activity. Mindfulness meditation is responsible for minimizing the activities that take in the default mode network of the brain which is associated with self-wondering thoughts as well as brain wondering (Zeidanet al, 2014). Brain activity is low when an individual is wandering from one thought to another as it is the case with mindfulness meditation.

    Mindfulness meditation also assists in forming of rivalry for antidepressants of anxiety and depression (Krygieret al, 2013). It reduces these effects by reducing the symptoms of pain, anxiety and depression. Mindfulness meditation has the ability of causing changes in volume of the key regions of an individual brain (Hasson, 2013). Mindfulness meditation increases the cortical thickness in hippocampus which controls memory and learning as well as increasing volume of brain regions that control emotions and self -referential processing. It can also decrease volume of cells in the amygdala, this result to change in feeling and subjective perception

    of an individual. Mindfulness meditation serves as a perfect help of controlling addiction (Eberth &Sedlmeier, 2012). Meditation is effective in helping people recover from various forms of addiction as it initiates a sense of self control of various regions of the brain. Generally, mindfulness meditation boosts brain operation, increases concentration as well as attentiveness.

    Meditation can as well trigger some adverse effect to an individual (Sedlmeieret al, 2012). The various type of meditation is not suitable across the entire humanity. Mindfulness medication connects with an individual internal space which might cause emotions and mind blockages. Mindfulness meditation can trigger release of some past hidden memories which have the potential of traumatizing one’s brain (Zeidanet al, 2014). It can also induce feeling of guilty as well as lack of comfort resulting from kinaeesthetic sensations. Mindfulness meditation also has the potential of causing tension as well as disorientation and confusion resulting from the brain.

    Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Work

    Exercising mindfulness also has some impacts for performance. Research done in the past is not specifically clear on performance at work and mindfulness, one particular study discussed if mindfulness had a role in interactive industry service jobs (Dariotiset al, 2016). Findings that service jobs that are interactive are associated with emotions in participation showed that mindfulness led to an increase in job satisfaction as well as reducing exhaustion of emotions and it does so through the emotional regulatory strategy of acting as per surface (Ainsworth et al, 2013). In addition these conclusions added to some results that gave a summary showing that exercising mindfulness may lead to particularly strong impacts in jobs that required regulation of emotions (Hyland et al

    2015). Expected later research might be guaranteed to find out whether results generalize some jobs that are not labor intensive but emotional.

    The study on mindfulness meditation recently is increasingly becoming popular among varying numbers of audiences including employees, leaders of organizations coaches, consultants and psychologists. Probably one cause for such popularity is research on body growth which shows that mindfulness provides several physiological and physical benefits (Dariotiset al, 2016).For some year’s medical doctors and clinical psychologists have used techniques of mindfulness to help people withstand various illnesses including anxiety, depression and chronic pain. In current years researchers have begun exploring mindfulness benefits in workplaces, realizing that everything may be improved by mindfulness, from enjoyment, memory, commitment, task performance to commitment, resiliency and social relationships (Ainsworth et al, 2013).

    Due to this, many corporations and organizations have started offering mindfulness sessions to their work force. Some companies have established training programs on mindfulness in order to enhance effectiveness and well-being of employees (Dariotiset al, 2016). An example is the U.S army which has begun the Mindfulness-based Fitness of the mental program, with good results (Ainsworth et al, 2013). Mindfulness also supports success of individuals and has implemented in some training institutions to enhance performance of students in their studies, this institutions include The Drucker School of Business, Harvard School of Business and many more. Considering body growth mindfulness is also found to offer raging potential benefits at work.

    Mindfulness also has a stress reduction effect after one is trained about it (Hyland et al 2015). This enables employees to cultivate and practice focused attention on the sensations of their breathing while allowing emotions, thoughts and be aware of

    physical sensations and then pass away (Dariotiset al, 2016). The main target is not ignoring thoughts or events but to allow them pass without analyzing, ruminating, accept them as they are or judging (Ainsworth et al, 2013). Such benefits of mindfulness psychology have cognitive roots, and research has consistently found that mindfulness meditation practice positively and significantly impacts activity of the brain as well as the density of neural gray matter in the dorsal portions of the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain responsible for key functional capabilities such as memory, affective processing, learning, perspective taking, facilitating adaptive responses to stress and emotion regulation(Cederström& Spicer, 2015).

    Actually, substantial research supports the finding that meditation caused significantly a rise in attention and awareness about meditation group as compared to a group that was not involved in meditation (Ainsworth et al, 2013). Specifically, resolved that attention on response of behavior such as special orienting and special navigation abilities were improved, as was the ability to be selectively attentive, a skill necessary in special navigation in order to have control on becoming disoriented or lost similarly found significant improvements in working memory performance and sustained attention in participants in an intensive day mindfulness meditation retreat as compared to individuals in a control group (Cederström& Spicer, 2015). More recently, used Magnetic Resonance Imaging methodology in finding that 8 weeks of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction training is associated with a more consistent deliberate focus, enhanced reflective sensory experience awareness, and improvement of sensory processing similarly found that a short (Dariotiset al, 2016)mindfulness training could participants’ processing and their performance on tasks necessitating important attention also found that the trainings could improve

    the whole executive functioning, including positively affecting their capacity of working memory as well as positive effects on their performance on tasks requiring efficiency in executive processing.

    Some research also suggests mindfulness to be a factor that impacts positively different outcomes at workplaces including resilience, innovation, creativity, productivity, work engagement, communication skills, absenteeism, reduced conflict and turnover (Okuyama, 2014). Exercising mindfulness predicts abilities of self-regulatory and enhances task dedication and endurance as well as decrease in multitasking if compared to control group as well as general relaxation group (Cederström& Spicer, 2015). Moreover it has been found that those who participated in the former research group came up with a report that showed less negative emotions related to tasks than those who did the latter research.

    Some research done with a big company that dealt with that deals with insurance showed that employees exercising mindfulness had better sales than those who did not exercise also noted that pessimistic workers were those who were the worst in performance (Garland, 2014). Other research also suggested that humans have a behavior of being pessimists but this can be controlled through training about mindfulness which discourages negative thinking. Practicing mindfulness promotes satisfaction in jobs and helps in preventing burnout from being exhausted emotionally.

    Mindfulness impacts after training have been found to affect empathy for oneself as well as for others and enhancing both conserving self-efficiency in professionals among health care in particular and patient centered care (Ainsworth et al, 2013). Such emotions enhanced self-awareness as a result of mindfulness is specifically notable while regarding to the place of work. Lacking self-control is a key obstacle toward success in leadership, thus making practicing mindfulness

    more relevant when related to workplace and particularly leadership success and achievement (Stevens, 2012). Employee stress affects their performance thus reducing the expected quality of the outcome from their work, this can be dealt with through mindfulness training on their wellness and health (Cederström& Spicer, 2015). Reduced stress on workers works in contradiction to this by improving performance, unity and better results of the outcome, Mindfulness results may not be direct results but can be noticed with time if it is considered (Garland, 2014).

    Methodology

    This study aimed at evaluating whether mediation causes individuals to increase their levels of compassion, empathy and attractiveness among other personal attributes. In order to facilitate this study, a sample of 50 tax drivers was selected where 25 of them were engaged in mediation and the remaining 25 drivers used as the control group. This took two weeks after which a comparison of their average rating and tip amount given to each of the 50 taxi drivers by their customers was conducted. Evaluation of the data analysis was done using ANOVA and correlation analysis.

    Hypotheses

    Mediation causes individuals to increase their levels of compassion, empathy and attractiveness among persons who practice it. Past research shows that people involve themselves in meditation activities in order to do away with stressing issues and also address their health concerns which may result due to over working ones brain (Safarzadeh&Wallmark, 2011). Meditation has helped in enhancing compassion among those who practice it since it helps in the combination of the inner intention of a person with the evocation and visualization of compassion feeling. It clearly helps in understanding oneself and hence come to know how to treasure life

    and guard it from facing sorrows. It is from this self-understanding that one manages to mind the welfare of others and start caring on them.

    According to Maliszewskiet al(1981), persons who are engaged in meditation normally are seen to have varying characteristics which depicts caring and comfort extension to those who are having pain. Indeed, meditation leads to natural response which emerges right away from the heart. This practice of compassion can actively be seen as way of cultivating value in the welfare of others. In relating compassion, existing literature shows that one needs to have experienced persons who are ready and willing to stay present at times when he/she is having pain (Safarzadeh&Wallmark, 2011). This practice thus cultivates welfare to the others by perceiving them in aversive manner which evokes empathic concerns. Therefore based on the mentioned previous researches, it is expected that the 25 drivers who were involved in meditation will have more compassion, empathy and attractiveness to their customers than the 25 drivers who served as the control group in the study. This thus leads to my first hypothesis which is as follows:

    Hypothesis 1: Drivers who were engaged in meditation had increased levels of compassion, empathy and attractiveness than those who did not participate in meditation.

    Previous studies have clearly shown meditation under normal situations should lead to increased compassion and love for all the persons who involve themselves in it (Dillbecketal, 1987). Therefore as per these studies, meditation is known to interfere with the moral mind calculus. Under normal circumstances, it is not clearly established whether sharing the feelings of others leads to a change of one’s behavior and hence compelling one to

    behave in a supportive manner. Studies by Dillbecketal (1987) also show that despite the fact that chances are high that everyone will act in a way which comforts and sooths those in suffering, chances also exist that will not be the case at all times. In this study, my hypothesis will aim at proving whether engaging in mediation for a certain period of time helped in improving the driver’s psychological and physical wellbeing.

    Hypothesis 2: Mindfulness meditation helped the 25 taxi drivers in improving their workplace performance unlike their colleagues who were not involved.

    Mindfulness helps one be aware of others cognitions, emotions, mind state and also the ones relationship with others and the environment. It is clear that this helps those involved in this kind of meditation to present a reasonable experience where one remains curious and open to those who need their help. Recent studies by Cahn &Polich(2006)have shown that interventions based on mindfulness are known to poses positive psychological impacts which enhance behavioral regulations, well-being and also helps to reduce emotional reactivity and clinical symptoms. It is on the basis of this that one will be in a position to be productive while undertaking workplace activities (Dillbecketal, 1987). The main aim of this study was to establishing the difference between the two groups of taxi drivers in terms of workplace production and customer relations.

    Data Collection

    The study basically consisted of 50 tax drivers who were assignment one of the two groups in a random manner. The first group of 25 taxi drivers was engaged in a two-week meditation activity while the other group of 25 was used as the control group. The group which was

    engaged in meditation was taken through the various types of meditation for a period of two weeks. After this period, the two groups were taken back to job so as to resume their normal daily duties. At this time, the customers were instructed to rate the drivers depending on the services they got from them. This was done without the knowledge of the drivers who might have changed their normal attributes. This was done so as to ensure that the obtained information was unique and that it was not influenced by the drivers. Equal chances were given to all taxi drivers a situation which ensured that the results were not biased to one side (the mediation engaged group). The results data obtained were then used to simulate the variation between the two groups of drivers in order to identify the nature of variation which existed in the two groups of drivers.

    Statistical Analysis

    After the experiment I used the obtained data in constructing ratings which were based on the service offered by the two groups of drivers in terms of mindfulness, compassion and attractiveness. After this, I compared the measures by utilizing ANOVA method of data analysis and also the reliability analysis. The two methods ensured that the used scales were consistent and reliable among all the participants.

    Appropriateness of the Study Design

    The methodology adopted in this study gave chance for sufficient time for the actual interaction of the taxi drivers with their customers. The utilization of this experimental design of study, the taxi driver-customer interaction would not have been possible. The research design helped me to answer all my research questions.

    Data collection was based on the assumption

    that no tax driver knew whether there was a research which was been undertaken. Another assumption was that the customers rated the drivers in consideration of the offered services and not by the virtual that they were friends or they knew one another. The other assumption was that the customers were not selective of drivers to drive them and that they were rational and ready to use the available tax. The major advantage of this study is that it can be generalized to other workplace areas.

    Results/ Findings

    From the introduction the study deployed comparison techniques, therefore, the data collected during the study was design to answer the research questions and capture the study hypothesis based on results from the two groups of the Mytaxi drivers. The research study has highlighted sub-hypothesis which have been obtained from the general hypothesis, which aims at investigating if meditation has effect on performance in work place. This section will discuss the results and findings based on the regression and general analysis.

    The Study Participants

    To conduct the research experiment, 50 taxi drivers from Maytaxi Company were engaged, whereby, half of them got subjected to meditation techniques, whereas, the remaining 25 drivers remained normal and did not undergo the meditation mechanisms. In each group, gender factor was considered; however, the numbers of males was higher than female participants. The analysis for selection of the participants is shown on the figure below.

    The gender factor was used as a parameter of the population used to give further analysis regarding the effect of performance in work place. The assumption deployed in the study is that, the participants were not told if they were under study experiments.

    In relation to gender ratio, the research study gave further details and analysis to determine if the impacts of meditation on work performance are influenced by gender factor.

    Relative Comparison of the Two Groups

    To proof or test the postulated hypothesis, the results from the two distinctive groups was compares to observe if there are any contrasts and similarities. The comparative technique uses the qualitative approach this is because, all the indicators lacked empirical elements. The specific indicators to measure the differences between the two experimental groups in relation to work performance included the level of compassion, empathy attractiveness and ability to serve customers. The idea of using clients to give remarks towards the quality of service offered was the best since all the results obtained was compared.

    Hypothesis Testing

    Hypothesis 1: the drivers who engaged in mindfulness meditation techniques had increased level of compassion, empathy and attractiveness towards customer attendance compared to those who did not participate

    The results for this hypothesis was positive, since after two weeks of meditation engagement, the results indicated that, there was a great change in the three indicators. Regarding the compassion aspect, the taxi drivers expressed interests in serving their customers more than the other group who did not attend the meditation session. The analysis indicated that, customers would prefer to use the same driver in future considering how he or she has been treated for the first time. For instance, a client made request be using only particular driver for the rest when using mytaxi commuter services. By use of the feedback remark card used by clients to suggest the quality of the services offered, most of the clients indicated that, the

    drivers used to very cooperative and would be patient especially when the client was delayed or when a problem arose. This was contrast to the results and the remarks given to the drivers who did not undergo the meditation session.

    From the table above, the findings indicated that, there were 231 clients who promised to continue using the same commuter services, which is a large number compared to the other category B in which only 102 clients who promised to use the same services in future. The ration can be expressed as follows

    A1/B1=231/102- this ratio indicates that, the meditation techniques had impact in improving the customers job compassion which was observed through customers remarks. Its only 5 clients who complained about the services offered by the drivers who underwent the meditation techniques and also declined to use the service in future, this is a smaller number compared to 301 clients who declined to use the services offered by the drivers who did not undergo meditation techniques. In a ratio this can be expressed as;

    A2/B2=5/301- this findings directly translate a poor ratio implicating how meditation had improved the general attractiveness of the drivers. The ratio shows, the category B of the drivers remained unattractive to the customers compared to the category A drivers. In addition, the previous records for the participants who were use in the experiment were used to make comparison to complement the findings and results from meditation. The findings indicated that, after meditation, there were few people who complained on services offered by category A of the drivers, whereas the other group, the number of complains remained at constant rate.

    Hypothesis2: Mindfulness meditation helped the

    25 taxi drivers in improving their workplace performance unlike their colleagues who were not involved.

    The second hypothesis was to test of the mindfulness meditation had a positive improvement towards the performance in the workplace. This was measured by gathering or counting the number of clients attended by the two categories of drivers, A and B. in the first hypothesis, the findings had direct impact on how the meditation will attract as many customers as possible and improve or expand the services. However, there was improvement at individual performance in the workplace. The category B drivers used to work for long hours even after the usual time. The findings also indicated that, most of category A preferred to arrive at the job earlier than usual compared to the other group. Further analysis indicated that, the category B drivers had frequent complained and expressed stress which is the key cause of poor performance in the job. The institution was taking much time settling conflicts in the workplace triggered by group B compared to the other group A. with all the assumptions for this study, the findings proofs the hypothesis and also the findings achieve the general scope of the study by answering the research questions.

    Discussion

    Meditation program is found to have significant effects on the performance of those who are involved in it since it has a goal of changing people positively. In the results, drivers who adhered to the program are found to be offering services that are acceptable and appreciated by the users since they use good etiquette while serving their clients (Neff & Germer, 2013).This explains the reason why many of their customers have stuck

    onto them and are ready to be using their services. However, the other group of drivers who exempted themselves from the meditation program are found to have no change and still offering poor services which are unacceptable and this serves the purpose as to why they are losing a large number of customers. Mindfulness meditation is the way in which the capacity of human appears to be naturally beneficial in different circumstances (Tang et al, 2015). There is no possibility of any Harm arising unless inappropriate mindfulness practices are used or through misguidance.

    In thinking about ways of learning and teaching mindfulness safely, we put into consideration three main dimensions which are the vulnerability of the person, the intensity of the practice, and the quality of the mindfulness instruction (Badenoch& Cox, 2013). Being aware of these factors will help to ensure that there is protection against risk for those who practice mindfulness and that mindfulness-based program teachers receive supervision and appropriate training. Mindfulness is practiced in three key dimensions (Tang et al, 2015). Practices of low-intensity mindfulness are offered in many teaching programs as well as through self-guide books, which can be downloaded as recordings, and some applications. Taking an example of the headspace, it provides low-intensity and short mindfulness exercises that are practiced by millions of people worldwide.

    Moderate intensity practice is another dimension used in stress reduction basing on mindfulness, cognitive therapy, and other mindfulness programs that are based on evidence. In this dimension, participants spend over 8weeks sitting for up to 40 minutes a day practicing mindful observation of their feelings, bodily sensations and thoughts. They are invited to offer their attention to both

    the unpleasant and the pleasant (Neff &Germer, 2013).They are requested to bring their learning and new skills to the difficulties that caused them to attend the classes .For most participants, specifically those with serious mental or physical pain, this almost invariably brings them to unwanted memories or mind difficulty, sensations and emotions. Learning ways of working skillfully with such encounters, which are presumed to be normal, can cause substantial improvements in wellbeing and mental health (Badenoch& Cox, 2013). Practices that are in-session are followed by discussion with a mindfulness teacher who helps participants relate what they noticed during the exercise. Detailed guidance is also provided for practice between sessions.

    Another most used mindfulness practice dimension is about meditation retreats, whereby participants typically have to meditate for many hours per day, often in total silence, for a period of one week or more time than that. Meeting with a mindfulness teacher may occur only once every day or two (Neff &Germer, 2013). Most reports of wide rage effects of mindfulness practice nowadays come from the participants in retreats that are intensive. Retreat centers that are operated by meditation teachers are the most effective with comprehensive knowledge of orientation of the retreat centre. Teachers in mindfulness retreat centers frame the hardship within their own experience and orientation (Khouryet al 2013). Considering the Maytaxi research results the drivers who engaged themselves in meditation are found to have intense activity in their performance as well as being less emotional unlike those who were not engaged in the meditation program.
    According to Shonin et al (2013), meditation program enables an individual to improve his or her performance at work. Comparing the

    drivers who

    were involved in meditation with those who did not involve themselves in meditation program, it was evident from the results that meditation had a significant impact on the performance of the taxi drivers that had meditation. The positive impact resulted to increase in profit for the drivers. It was out meditation that the drivers decided to start working for long hours. Increase in working hours results to increase in the number of customers served (Shoninet al, 2013). Increased extensive working hours increases the amount of profit gained. The mindfulness meditationapplied by type Adriverstriggered them to arrive earlier and leave late thus increasing their working mistakes. Lack of mindfulness meditation by a working individual lowers his or her performance at work as well as limits his mind in adopting new strategies to cope up with the working competition (Connell & Thaarup, 2013). This was evident with the type B driver who had lessconcern for their customers. Engagement in meditation while at work brings about good customer relationship.

    Meditation improves one‚Äės dedication to his or her work hence the more one is dedicated to job the higher the performance he or she achieves (Shonin et al, 2013). The dedication to work made the type A drivers to expand their service to customers. Application of mindfulness mediation at work encourages innovations at work to cope up with the completion (Connell & Thaarup, 2013). This explains why type A taxi drivers attracted majority of the customers in the market. Meditation also encourages formation of new working conditions to satisfycustomer‚Äôs needs. It was out of mindfulness meditation that type A taxi drivers opted to start working earlier than before and leave

    job late in the night to ensure it serves all the customers.

    Lack of meditation of application of mindfulness meditation at work encourages laziness among the working individuals (Connell & Thaarup, 2013). This explains why type B taxi drivers were never concerned with improving their working hours as well as making innovations that would attract more customers. Lack of meditation application to work translates to low customer attraction as well as limits expansion of services offered by an individual (Shonin et al, 2013). Non meditators have less concern for their customers. This explains why type B taxi drivers, who were non meditators where never concerned with fulfilling customers desires such as picking them early in the morning and dropping them to their homes late in the evening.

    In reference to Marchand (2012), mindfulness meditation in job or in any working environment serves to evade stress associated with work thus in turn resulting higher performance. The type A taxi drivers who were mediators worked in a stress free environment compared to their counterparts who were non meditators as they found their job more stressing. Mindfulnessmeditators avoid time wastage in solving conflicts at work. This is the reason why the institution spend a lot of time in settling disputes associated with type B drivers as they were non meditators. This resulted to poor performance in their jobs. Generally, application of meditation at work boosts the performance of the worker at work hence maximizing all benefits of associated with the work (Goyal et al, 2014).

    Conclusion

    As far as people give their views concerning mindfulness meditation, there are a lot of assumptions who do not apply. There are many reasons as to

    why individuals will decide to engage in meditation activities. The truth is that, most of medical professionals give advice to their patients directing them to start exercising meditation methods to relive their body from heavy stress or strenuous days of work. However, in reference to the literature review provides for research paper there is sufficient evidence showing how this directly benefit employers and the family of their patients. Our health is the most important thing and it is always given the first priority. Therefore, any factor distracting the health status is supposed to be addressed appropriately. This means some people expose to meditation techniques even without knowing or their consent. The fact remains that, due to the daily heavy demands of life, human beings must engage in productive activities which earn them income for their basic sustenance. It is on this basis that, they develop health complications which require attention. The translation is that, strenuous activities are inevitable in our lives. At the end of the day one will require to gain consciousness and take momentum for new activity or to catch up in a new day.

    Medical professionals use various approaches to deal or address this condition. However, the method of subjecting patients into prescriptions drugs is highly challenged by a group of psychologist since they claim this has long term impact towards health of individuals. This has generally triggered a medical conflict and confusion to the community in deciding which is right and wrong. However, recently individuals prefer to use non-chemical substances in attending their health complications. The challenge is on how which is the best method to meditate. The fact remains that, mindfulness

    meditation involves both physical and psychological activities to achieve the intended purpose. It mainly embraces the correlation between the brain and the physical activities to generate the personal consciousness. Recently, scholars have found this field interesting to base their medical and psychological researches to devise a better and improved psychological and non-toxic methods to deal with brain and psychological body disorders.

    In reference to the hypothesis of this research study which suggests that, engaging in meditation activities directly will have positive impact in work performance, the test of the hypothesis is positive. Among the 50 participants who got involved in this study, the half of the taxi drivers who were subjected to meditation activities showed improvement in their performance. There various parameters and indicators used to measure the results were reliable which strengthens the reliability of the study. Customers, who had no idea about the study, were used as source of information from their ratings to the drivers who offered services to them. Clients who used services offered by category A drivers provided a positive response recommending the good services from the drivers, and further they promise to engage and use the same services in future. This is contrast to the other category B of the drivers who did not undergo meditation, where clients got dissatisfied with services. This was expressed through series of complains from the clients. Particularly, clients showed that, these drivers were very uncooperative. They went ahead to declare never to use their commuter services in future.

    Regarding the work performance, the results or finding tested positively for the second hypothesis. According to the category B, there results indicated that, there was improved performance

    in various aspects. For instance, category A drivers used to make more trips hence pocketing large profit compared to the others who were not exposed to the meditation. This means the mindfulness meditation helps in improving the performance in workplace.

    Regarding the valid and viability of the research study; all ethical issues were observed by keeping the personal details confidential from unauthorized individuals. It is only the researcher and the supervisor who had authority to access the data for analysis and confirmation. The method of data collection was efficient and minimal errors were observed this is because; both drivers and clients had no idea about the study going on hence there was no biasness. The method which was used to divide the sample of participant was good for the study considering the factor that, they were two equal parts. The limitation for this study research is that, the sample population was very small and it involved participants from one field that is drivers only, hence it could be a challenge to use these results in another context. In future research about meditation and its effect to work performance, it is recommended the researcher to extend and cover participants from different professions or careers.

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