Medical terminology chapter 4

Flashcard maker : Patrick Turner
Atom
The smallest, most basic chemical unit of an element
Homeostasis
A state of equilibrium that is maintained within the body’s internal environment
Neutron
Particle without any electrical charge
Proton
Particle with a positive charge
Electron
Particle with a negative charge that revolve around the nucleus of an atom
Chemical elements
Made up of atoms that can be classified on the basis of their atomic number into grounds called elements
Element
A substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into any other substance
Molecule
A chemical combination of two or more atoms that dorm a specific chemical compound
Cells
Basic building blocks
Cell membrane
The outer covering of a cell and has the capability of allowing and denying substances in and out
Cytoplasm
Substance between the cell cell membrane and the nuclear membrane that provides storage and work areas for the cell
Organelles
Little organs
Organelles
The ER, Golgi apparatus, mitochondrion, lysosomes, and centrioles are examples of what
Nucleus
Responsible for the cells metabolism, growth, and reproduction
Genome
The complete set of genes and chromosomes tucked inside each of the body’s trillions of cells
Stem cells
Precursors of all body cells and are able to renew and divide for long periods
Ribosomes
Make enzymes and other proteins
ER
Carries proteins and other substances through the cytoplasm
Golgi apparatus
Chemically processes the molecules from the ER and then packages them into vesicles
Mitochondria
Involved in cellular metabolism and respiration and provides the principle source of cellular energy and is the place where complex energy-releasing chemical reactions occur continuously
Lysosomes
Contain enzymes that can digest food compounds
Centrioles
Play an important role in cell reproduction
Cilia
Hairlike processes that project from epithelial cells, help propel mucus, dust particles, and other foreign substances from the respiratory tract
Flagellum
Tail of the sperm that enables the sperm to swim or move toward the ovum
Nucleus
Contains DNA of the cell
Tissue
Grouping of similar cells that’s together perform specializes functions
Epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
What are the four basic type of tissues in the body
Epithelial tissue
Appears as sheet like arrangements of the cells, sometimes layers thick, that form the outer surfaces of the body and line the body cavities and the principal tubes and passageways leading to the exterior
Epithelial tissue
Job is to protect, allow sensations, secretion , absorption, excretion, and diffusion
Connective tissue
The most widespread and abundant of the body tissues and forms the supporting network for the organs of the body, sheath muscles, and connects muscles to bones and bones to joints
Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue
Smooth and cardiac
Examples of involuntary muscles
Skeletal muscle
Example of voluntary muscle
Nerve tissue
Composed of nerve cells and neurogilia
Organs
Multiple different tissues serving a common purpose or function that make up structures
System
A group of different organs functioning together for a common purpose
Integumentary system
Protective membrane, temperature regulator, and sensory receptor
Skeletal system
Shape, support, protection, and storage place for minerals.
Muscular system
Muscles produce movement, maintain posture, and produce heat
Nervous system
Transmits impulses, responds to change, is responsible for communication and exercises control over all parts of the body
Endocrine system
The glands produce hormones, chemical messengers, that provide for communication and control over various parts of the body
Cardiovascular system
Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide , delivers nutrients and hormones, and removes waste products
Blood and lymphatic system
Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide, chemical substances and cells that act to protect the body from foreign substances
Lymphatic system
Stimulates immune responses , protects the body, and transports proteins and fluids
Respiratory system
Furnishes oxygen for use by the individual tissue cells and removes their gaseous waste products, carbon dioxide
Digestive system
Digestion, absorption, and elimination
Reproductive system
Responsible for sexual characteristics of the male or female. Proper functioning ensures survival of the human race
Sagittal plane
Vertically divides the body or structure into right and left sides
Midsagittal plane
Divides the body or structure into right and left halves
Transverse or horizontal plane
Any plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Coronal or frontal plane
Any plane that divides the body at right angles to the midsagittal
Coronal plane
Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
Superior
Above, in an upward direction, toward he head
Inferior
Below or in a downward direction; more towards the feet
Anterior
In front or before, the front side or the body
Posterior
Toward the back, back side of the body
Ventral and dorsal
What is another name for anterior and posterior
Cephalic
Pertaining to the head, superior in position
Caudal
Pertaining to the tail, inferior in position
Medial
Nearest to the midline or middlen
Lateral
To the side, away from the middle
Proximal
Nearest the point of attachment or near the beginning of a structure
Distal
Away from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure
Cavity
Hollow space containing body organs
Ventral/anterior cavity and dorsal/posterior cavity
What are the two groups of body cavities
Ventral cavity
Hollow portion of the human torso extending from the neck to the pelvis
Ventral
What cavity contains the heart and the organs of respiration, digestion, reproduction. And elimination
Thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic
What are the 3 distinct areas of the ventral cavity
Thoracic cavity
The area of the chest containing the heart and the lungs, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and certain large blood and lymph vessels
Pericardial cavity
Space containing the heart
Pleural cavities
Spaces surrounding each lung
Abdominal cavity
Space below the diaphragm that contains the stomach, intestines, and other organs of digestion
Pelvic cavity
Space formed by the bones of the pelvis area and contains the organs of reproduction and elimination
Dorsal cavity
Containing the structures of the nervous system
Cranial and spinal
What 2 cavities are of the dorsal cavity
Cranial cavity
Space in the skull containing the brain
Spinal cavity
Space within the bony column that contains the spinal cord and spinal fluid
Abdominopelvic cavity
Combination of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
9
How many regions are in the abdominopelvic cavity
Right hypochondriac
Upper right region at the level of the ninth rib cartilage
Left hypochondriac
Upper left region at the level of the ninth rib cartilage
Epigastric
Region over the stomach
Right lumbar
Right middle lateral region
Left lumbar
Left middle lateral region
Umbilical
In the center between the right and left lumbar regions; at the naval
Right iliac (inguinal)
Right lower lateral region
Left iliac (inguinal)
Left lower lateral region
Hypogastric
Lower middle region below the navel
RUQ
Contains the right lobe of the lover, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestines
LUQ
Contains the left lobe of the liver, stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestines
RLQ
Contains part of the small and large Intestines, appendix, right ovary, right Fallopian tube, right ureter
LLQ
Contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left Fallopian tube, left ureter
Midline
Some organs, such as the urinary bladder and uterus, are located half in the right quadrant and half in the left quadrant. Theses organs are generally referred to as being in the (blank) of the body
Abdomen
Abdomin/o
Ankle (tarsus)
Tars/o
Arm
Brach/i
Back
Poster/o
Bones
Oste/o
Breast
Mast/o;mamm/o
Cheek
Bucc/o
Chest
Thorac/o
Ear
Aur/i;ot/o
Elbow
Cubital;olecran/o
Eye
Ophthalm/o;ocul/o;opt/o
Finger
Dactyl/o
Foot
Pod/o
Gums
Gingiv/o
Hand
Manus;chir/o
Head
Cephal/o
Heart
Cardi/o
Hip or hip joint
Coxa
Leg
Crur/o
Liver
Hepat/o
Lungs
Pulm/o; pulmon/o;pneumon/o
Mouth
Or/o
Muscles
Muscul/o;my/o
Navel
Umbilic/o; omphal/o
Neck
Cervic/o
Nerves
Neur/o
Nose
Rhin/o; nas/o
Ribs
Cost/o
Side
Later/o
Skin
DERM/a; dermat/o; derm/o; cutane/o
Skull
Crani/o
Stomach
Gastr/o
Teeth
Dent/i
Temples
Tempor/o
Thigh bone
Femor/o
Throat
Pharyng/o
Tongue
Lingu/o; gloss/o
Wrist
Carp/o
Fat
Adip/o
Man
Andr/o
Toward the front
Anter/o
Life
Bi/o
Tail
Caud/o
Cell
Cyt/o
Away from the point of origin
Dist/o
Backward
Dors/o
Tissue
Hist/o
Water
Hydr/o
Below
Infer/o
Groin
Inguin/o
Cells nucleus
Kary/o
Side
Later/o
Toward the middle
Medi/o
Organ
Organ/o
Disease
Path/o
To show
Phen/o
Nature
Physi/o
Behind, toward the back, back
Poster/o
Near the point of origin
Proxim/o
Body
Somat/o
Near or on the belly side of the body
Ventr/o
Body organs
Viscer/o
Apex
Pointed end of a cone shaped structure
Base
Lower part or foundation of a structure
Caudal
Pertaining to the tail
Cytology
Study of cells
Diffusion
The process whereby particles in a fluid move from an are of high concentration to an are of lower concentration resulting in an even distribution of the particles in the fluid
Ectomorph
Slender physical body form; linear physique
Endomorph
Round and soft physical body form
Inguinal
Pertaining to the groin
Karyogenesis
Formation of a cells nucleus
Mesomorph
Well proportioned body form marked by predominance of tissue derived from ten mesoderm
Pathology
Study of disease
Perfusion
Literally means a process of pouring through; as passing of a fluid through space; to supply the body with nutritive fluid via the blood stream
Phenotype
Physical appearance or type of make up of an individual
Physiology
Study of function of living organisms
Protoplasm
Essential matter inside a living cell
Proximal
Nearest the center or point of origin; nearest the point of attachment
Somatotropic
Pertaining to stimulation of body growth
Systemic
Pertaining to the body as a whole
Topical
Pertaining to a place, definite locale
Unilateral
Pertaining to one side
Ventral
Pertaining to the belly side , abdomen ; front side of the body
Vertex
Top or highest point, top or crown of the head
Visceral
Pertaining to the body organs enclosed within a cavity, especially abdominal organs

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