





nonmetals form ___ oxides 


groups left to right periodic table 

alkali, alkaline earth, halogen, noble gases 

Z_{eff}/ Effective nuclear charge 

charge felt by 2nd electron d/t shielding from 1st e^{–} 






energy required to pull off one electron from nucleus 


increases → (d/t increasing Z_{eff}) & ↑ (d/t larger radius @ bottom of periodic table) 




increases → & ↑ (like ionization E) 

Which periodic table properties increases → & ↑ 

E of Ionization, Electron Affinity, Electronegativity 

Which periodic table properties decreases from → & ↑ 

Atomic radius, Metallic character 

Empirical formula represents 


molecular formula represents 



more vs. less (charge or oxygen) 


ic & ous (less) OR ium (nonmetal component) 


hypo/ite & ite, ate, per/ate (fewest O to mst) 


hydro & ic; if have O, no hydro & use ic or ous depending on fewer or more O 


opposite charged held by electrostatic forces 


metal atoms bond together by flowing e 


e.g. diamonds. Atoms held by polar & nonpolar bonds 


e.g. ice. Molecules held by intermolecular bonds 





e absorbs energy then moves… 


e emits energy when moves… 





4s & 3d in Cr & Cu & some other txstn metals 


PV=nRT
P> pressure (atm)
V> Volume (L)
n> # mols of gas
R> constant
T> Temp (K)


Partial Pressure equation 

P_{a} = X_{a}P_{total}
Partial press. of gas in mixture= mol fraction (mols of gas a / total mols of gas) of that gas times total press.



P_{total} = P_{1} +P_{2}+P_{3} 



For ideal gas, std. properties are: 

1 atm, 22.4 L, 1 mol, 0° C (273° K) 

When press. increases, K.E. … 


Graham’s law (ratio of rms velocities) 

v_{1}/v_{2} = ;m_{2}/;m_{1} 


Gas spreads from high to low press. thru pinhole 


effusion rate_{1}/effusion rate_{2}= ;m2/;m1 

Deviations in ideal behavior occurs when… 

V decreases (PV=nRT t/f V decreases if P increase or T decreases) 

Real gas to ideal gas volume 

V_{real} ; V_{ideal} (b/c ideal gas dsn’t have volume) 

Real gas pressure to ideal gas pressure 

P_{real} < P_{ideal} (b/c intermolecular attractive forces stronger t/f slows b/f hit wall) 




rate_{forward} = k_{f} [A]^{α}[B]^{β} 


A→products
 rate=k_{f}[A]
 [A] decreases exponentially
 slope= k_{f}
 halflife constant



2A→products
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 rate= k_{f}[A]^{2}
 each halflife longer than previous



K= [C]^{c}[D]^{d}/ [A]^{a}[B]^{b} = Products^{coefficients}/Rxtnts^{coefficients}



Equilibrium constant (measured in activity) vs. Rate constant 


Q = Products^{coeffcients}/Rxtnts^{coefficients}
 For non=equilibrium conditions
 used to predict direction of rxn

