MCAT Chem 5/6/7

heat capacity eqn


(q/ΔT= J/K or cal/°C)

specific heat capacity eqn

q= mcΔT

[q/ΔTm =usu. J/kg(K) or cal/g(ºC)]


1 cal g-1 ºC-1
bomb calorimeter. __ is constant
volume. No work done
fusion def.
Boiling pt. elevation d/t additn of nonvolatile solt. eqn.

ΔT = kbmi


i=# particles after substance dissociates

kb= constant for substance being boiled (e.g. H2O)]

Freezing pt. depressn eqn.
ΔT = kfmi
osmotic press. eqn
∏= iMRT
colligative properties (4)

vapor press, b.p., f.p., osmotic press.

[depend only on # of particles not what type]

Arrhenius acid vs. base def.
acid makes H+ in aqueous soln; base makes OH-
Bronsted-Lowry acid vs. base
acid donates p+; base accepts
Lewis acid vs. base
acid accepts pair of e-; base donates
-log [H+]
metal hydrides are
nonmetal hydrides are…
more O….acidic
more acidic
strong acids
HI, HBr, HCl, HNO3, HClO4, HClO3, H2SO4
strong bases
NaOH, KOH, NH2, H, Ca(OH)2, Na2O, CaO
strong acid has __ ka & ___ pka
large (>1); small (<0)
At 25°C, kw =
Acid dissociation gen’rl eqn
HA+ H2O ;; A + H3O+
base dissociatn gen’rl eqn
A + H2O –> HA + OH
pH + pOH =
Henderson Hasselbach eqn
pH= pka + log [A-]/[HA]
buffer soln made from
weak acid & its conjugate base
Oxidation State Table

Atoms in elemental form…0


H (nt: -1 when bonded to metal)….+1

O (nt: xcept when H2O2)….-2

Std. H+ electrode. Electric potential =?
2H+ +2e –> H2    E°= 0.00 V
Cell potential & ΔG eqn

ΔG = -nFEmax

[positive cell pot., neg. ΔG (spontaneous)]

non-std. state cell pot. & ΔG eqn
ΔG= ΔG° + RT ln(Q)
non-std. state cell pot. & ΔG° @ equilibrium

ΔG° = -RT ln(K)

[K & ΔG° vary w/ Temp.]

K & ΔG° & E° relationships

K=1; ΔG°=0

K>1; ΔG°<0; E°>0

K<1; ΔG°>0; E°<0

At which electrode does oxidatn or reductn occur?
An Ox; Red Cat
E or emf def?
cell potential
f.p. ΔT depends on…
# particles/g that dissociates
soluble ionic compounds contain
NO3, NH4+, alkali metals (Li+, Na+, K+…), halogens (Cl, Br, I) except Ag+, Hg22+, Pb2+
1 atm= ?mmHg= ?torr
equivalence point d/r titration is where…
line is vertical
half equivalence point is where…
1/2 of acid has been neutralized by base
pka given. Find pkb. Eqn=?
pka + pkb = 14 (pkb is conj. base)
calculate oxidatn state of sulfur in H2SO4
(+1)(2) + (-2)(4) = 0; S= -6
log (2.5 X10-2) vs. log (1X10-2). Which is smaller # (disregard sign)?
log (2.5X10-2)
strong acid – str. base titration equivalence pt. pH=? Xcept__
7; except for diprotic acid whose conj. base is a str. acid
Reduction potential Eº. Larger # means wants to be ___ & is better ___ agent.
reduced; oxidizing agent
At equilibrium, what is 0? ΔG, ΔGº, K…
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