Matter Ch. 1

Law of Conservation
the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes
Example of Law of Conservation
A cue ball hits an 8 ball on a pool table. The cue ball had kinetic energy that caused the 8 ball to go into motion. Before the 8 ball was struck it had potential energy.
Chemical Reaction Illustration
Two hydrogen molecules combining with one oxygen molecule.
Differences between states of matter
Solid has a fixed shape and volume. Liquid has a fixed volume but not fixed shape. Gas fits into a container of almost any size and shape.
Examples of states of matter
Solid: Rock
Liquid: Water
Gas: Oxygen
Physical Property
May change the arrangement of matter in a sample, but not the structure of its molecules.
Physical Property Examples
Mass, density and color.
Chemical Property
Property or behavior of a substance when it undergoes a chemical change or reaction.
Examples of Chemical Property
Toxicity, oxidation and flammability.
Physical Change
A change from one state to another without a change in chemical composition.
Examples of Physical Change
Melting an ice cube, crumpling a sheet of paper and casting silver into a mold.
Chemical Change
Rearrangement of the atoms of one or more substances in their chemical properties or composition.
Examples of Chemical Change
Burning Wood and dissolving salt in water.
Pure Substance
A pure substance has uniform composition and properties in all its parts, as it consists of particles of only one kind. For example, sugar and salt are pure substances.
Impure Substance
A substance is said to be impure if it has particles of other substances mixed in it.
Define Element
Substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means.
Example of Elements
Cesium, iron and neon.
Define Compounds
A thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture.
Examples of Compounds
Water, salt and hydrogen peroxide.
Define Mixtures
Two or more substances combine so each substance retains its own chemical identity.
Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mixtures
A homogeneous mixture is where the components that make up the mixture are uniformly distributed throughout the mixture. A heterogeneous mixture has components that are not uniform.
Define Intensive Property
An intensive property is a property of matter that does not change as the amount of matter changes.
Examples of Intensive Property
Density and specific gravity.
Define Extensive Property
An extensive property is a property of matter that changes as the amount of matter changes.
Examples of Extensive Property
Mass and volume.
Define Chromatography
Chromatography is a group of laboratory techniques to separate the components of a mixture by passing the mixture through a stationary phase.
Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatography which separates mixtures on the basis of their distribution between a stationary liquid phase and a mobile gas phase.
Liquid Chromatography
Liquid Chromatography is when the stationary phase is a finely ground particulate solid.
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin Layer Chromatography incorporates a solid stationary phase and a mobile liquid phase to effect the separation of the constituents of a mixture.
Chromatography Lab
We can use chromatography to separate the components of inks and dyes.
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