Mary Queen of Scots Research Paper

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Mary Queen of Scots Research Paper * 1542 * 8 December; Mary Stuart is born at Linlithgow Palace * 14 December; James V, King of Scots, Mary’s father, dies at 31 * 1543 * Mary crowned Queen of Scots * 1546 * Cardinal Beaton is murdered; ascendancy of pro-French party * 1547 * January; King Henry VIII of England dies * March; King Francis I of France dies * 10 September; battle of Pinkie; Scots defeated by English forces led by duke of Somerset; new French king, Henry II, sends troops and money to Scotland; Mary is betrothed to Henry II’s heir Francis, dauphin of France * 1548 August; Mary sent to France * 1550 * Mary’s mother, Mary of Guise, visits her in France * 1554 * Mary of Guise is officially named Regent in Scotland * 1558 * Fifteen-year-old Mary marries the 14-year-old Francis, dauphin of France, in Paris * Queen Mary I of England dies and Elizabeth Tudor becomes Queen * Mary’s father-in-law quarters her arms with those of England, offending Elizabeth * 1559 Death of King Henry II of France; Francis and Mary are crowned king and queen of France * 1560 * June; Mary of Guise passes away in Scotland * December; Mary’s husband, Francis, Mary’s husband, passes away * 1561 * Mary returns to Scotland * 1562 Northern campaign and visit to Inverness; aged 19 * 1563 Mary visits Inveraray,Dunure Castle, Dumfries, and Peebles; aged 20 * 1564 Mary hunts near Blair Atholl, Tayside; aged 21 1565 Mary marries her 19-year-old cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley; aged 22 * 1566 Mary’s Piedmontese secretary, David Riccio/Rizzio, is murdered; Mary’s only child born (James, later king of Scotland and England); aged 23 * 1567 Mary’s husband, Lord Darnley, murdered; Mary weds James Hepburn, the 30-year-old Earl of Bothwell; the Carberry Hill confrontation; Mary is imprisoned at Lochleven Castle; Mary’s one-year-old son James is crowned as James VI of Scotland; aged 24 1568 Mary escapes from Lochleven Castle; Battle of Langside, Glasgow; Mary flees to England; aged 25 * 1568-87 Mary is held captive in various English prisons; aged 25-44 * 1569 Elizabeth exonerates Mary from the charges made against her; aged 26 * 1578 Mary’s third husband, the earl of Bothwell (age 41), dies in a prison in Denmark; aged 35 * 1580 Mary writes Essay on Adversity in prison; aged 37 * 1586 Mary is tried for conspiring to kill Elizabeth; aged 43 * 1587 on 8 February, Mary is executed in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire * 1603 Queen Elizabeth I dies in March ; Mary’s only child, James VI of Scotland, becomes James I of England. He is the first King of both Scotland and England.

He moves his mother’s body to Westminster Abbey and has a grand monument built. Mary, queen of Scots was one of the most fascinating and controversial monarchs of 16th century Europe. At one time, she claimed the crowns of four nations – Scotland, France, England and Ireland. Her physical beauty and kind heart were acknowledged even by her enemies. Yet she lacked the political skills to rule successfully in Scotland. Her second marriage was unpopular and ended in murder and scandal; her third was even less popular and ended in forced abdication in favor of her infant son. She fled to England in 1568, hoping for the help of her cousin, Elizabeth I.

Her presence was dangerous for the English queen, who feared Catholic plotting on Mary’s behalf. The two queens never met and Mary remained imprisoned for the next nineteen years. She was executed in 1587, only forty-four years old. By orders of the English government, all of her possessions were burned. In 1603, upon Elizabeth’s death, Mary’s son became king of England as James I. What was Mary to do next? She left for Scotland, a land rife with religious and civil discord. Without waiting for a safe-conduct pass from Elizabeth, whose ships were patrolling her route, Mary set out for Scotland on 14 August 1561 and, five days later, reached Leith, the port of Edinburgh.

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