Marx And The Genesis Of Capitalism Sociology Essay Essay
Zeppo in his plant “ German Ideology ” , “ The Communist Manifesto ” and the “ Capital ” tried to explicate capitalist economy on the footing of economic system. Marx was at first influenced from Hegel and the fact that the survey of adult male ‘s consciousness was really of import for the apprehension of society.[ 1 ]Subsequently he developed his theory being based on what is called “ the materialist construct of history ” . As Alan Swingewood provinces in his book A short history of sociological idea: “ The German Ideology advanced a sociological construct of society as a definite construction built around counter societal categories, division of labour and signifiers of private propertyaˆ¦.society develops through different phases from slave and feudal, to capitalist ” .[ 2 ]Harmonizing to Marx, societal alteration can be achieved merely through the struggle between the categories. The production procedure is organized in a specific manner and hence there are produced dealingss between people, such as capitalist and worker or maestro and slave. These dealingss are defined and are formed independently from people ‘s will. Society is constructed on these dealingss.[ 3 ]
Marx besides includes in his theory the significance of the superstructure, which includes political orientations, faith, Torahs and political relations. The superstructure is based on substructure and it does non hold the power to alter the base. Marx believed that through revolution will be possible a alteration in that societal formation. Furthermore, every bit far as societal categories are concerned, Marx distinguishes them in two classs: capitalist and the on the job category. He believed that it was really of import the development of societal action as a opposition to the development of the opinion category. In order such a fact to be achieved, the constitution of category consciousness is necessary. Class struggle can take to the prostration of capitalist economy. Marx thought that the prostration of capitalist economy is possible through the revolution of the labor.[ 5 ]
Weber ‘s attack of capitalist economy
In the development of his theory of sociology, Weber was influenced by Simmel. Simmel saw society as a whole with many societal formations. Weber paid attending to the human agent and the dealingss between people. An of import issue for Weber was the apprehension of the world in which we live through the position of worlds ‘ , who act within it. People attach a specific significance to behaviours and by and large to the societal phenomena, based on their values and the ends that they pursue. For Weber, the topic of sociology is the deep apprehension of societal action. Social phenomena have significance merely through their relation with a specific value system.[ 6 ]
In order to analyze societal actions and ease their apprehension, Weber used the method of ideal types. It was hard to foretell the manner people react in mundane life and that is the ground why he made that methodological tool. Ideal types are pure signifiers of world. Weber distinguished ideal types in three classs: 1 ) historical formations, such as capitalist economy, 2 ) abstract type, such as bureaucratism and domination and 3 ) action type. Furthermore he distinguished action type in four subcategories ( rational value-oriented action, rational goal-oriented action, affectual action and traditional action ) . On the footing of these three ideal types he tried to explicate several societal phenomena by analyzing in what ways they converge or depart from the ideal type. He besides paid close attending to the term of rationalisation. He thought that the more rational an action is, the easier it is to foretell its development.[ 7 ]
One of the most of import Weber ‘s plant was “ The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism ” . In that work he foremost demonstrated rationalisation. Rationality seemed to hold many significances. For Weber, the most of import of them was that which was connected with “ the application of systematic and precise manners of computation and available agencies in the chase of specific ends and terminals ” .[ 8 ]In that manner reason can be found in every facet of societal life and bring forth several beliefs and values. The procedure of reason can take to a de-centered universe, where people can bring forth their ain significances without holding a dominant political orientation being imposed on them. For Weber, reason is really of import in order to understand “ societal alteration through the rational chase of specific ends ” .[ 9 ]Weber besides distinguishes reason in two classs: “ substantial reason ” and “ formal reason ” . Substantial reason includes ultimate values, such as equality, justness and freedom, while formal reason is concerned with the most effectual steps in order to accomplish certain ends. Capitalism is established on the footing of formal reason and Weber himself saw capitalist economy as a rational manner of organisation.[ 10 ]
Weber tried to explicate the development of western capitalist economy through the method of the ideal types. For Weber, capitalist economy was the consequence of ascetic Protestantism. Weber studied different faiths and the manner in which Protestant churches create a codification, harmonizing to which people should form and populate their lives. Calvinism was of great importance to him. Calvin introduced the issue of predestination. Harmonizing to that, God has prearranged everything and cipher can cognize his fate, whether he will be saved or damned. Peoples should be obedient to the Torahs of the church and live a reverent life. They should show their religion to god mundane with their behaviour and their actions. It was believed that since everybody has a limited clip to populate on Earth, they should take advantage of this clip in order to turn out God that they deserve their redemption. They should non indulge to material or other everyday delectations, which are regarded as waste of clip. They should work consistently and make non subject to the enticement of wealth, which removed them from their intent. Peoples should purchase merely necessary things for their life and do non pass money for luxuries. By working people could non “ purchase ” or guarantee their redemption. In those societies there were limited ingestion and systematic work and investing. The consequence was the accretion of capital. In that manner, through the manner of life imposed by the ascetic Protestantism we are led to the development of capitalist economy.[ 11 ]
The inquiry which Weber was concerned with was why capitalist economy developed merely in Western Europe and non in China, India and Palestine. In these states there was besides the appropriate substructure that could enable the development of capitalist economy. But they did non hold the necessary methodological analysis ; they were non organized in a rational manner. Capitalism, strongly connected with rational organized societies, flourished in Western Europe because of the rational manner of life imposed by spiritual beliefs.[ 12 ]This is the manner in which Weber tried to analyze the generation of capitalist economy by paying attending to faith and reason.
Comparing Marx ‘s and Weber ‘s attacks
Weber studied Marx ‘s theory on capitalist economy and he was its chief critic. For Weber the ideological factor was of great importance, while Marx based his theory on the economic system and the relationships that are created through the production activity. Marx ‘s method is holistic and mono-causal. He examines the society as a whole, moves to the research of society ‘s parts and so he returns to the whole to analyze the penetration. Weber thought that cultural signifiers, such as faith, reason and ethos besides influence the developments of societal phenomena. Harmonizing to Weber it is incorrect to analyze merely the economic manner of production. Furthermore, Weber criticized Marx ‘s attack on capitalist economy. He saw Marxism as being characterized by economic determinism. Ideas were non independent and they were portion of the system. The function of thoughts was emphasized in Weber ‘s theory and human histrions were non merely inactive objects.[ 13 ]By and large, Weber does non reject the historical philistinism in Marx ‘s theory. He objects to the holistic attack that Marx uses in order to explicate the development of capitalist economy.
Marx and Weber used different attacks to explicate the generation of capitalist economy. Weber made his surveies on the topic after Marx. He had the chance to read Marx ‘s theory and in a manner he was opposed to it. Marx believed that capitalist economy would fall in because of the contradictions it produced. He proposed that the revolution of the labor will take to the prostration of capitalist economy and the society will travel towards communism. On the other manus, Weber saw capitalist economy as a system with much potency. He did non do any anticipation about the hereafter of capitalist economy. He was more interested in the manner that it was created. Today capitalist economy is still a dominant system in most of the states all over the universe. It has many defects and it has caused many jobs. Neither Marx, nor Weber was perfectly right in the manner they approached the issue of capitalist economy. A combination of their attacks may supply a better account of the generation of capitalist economy in western societies.