Marketing Research Midterm

Four basic steps that make up the flow of an interview
Two criteria for productive interviews
Being non-directive
Achieving clarity, specificity and depth
What is backward market research?
Taking the traditional research approach and doing it in reverse. Start by determining how the results will be implemented, then how the final report will look and what it will contain, then look for secondary data, if none exists create own study, then carry out fieldwork, then analyze and create report
5 strategies for productive interviews
Be non-judgmental
Let people talk
Be sensitive
Provide feedback and encouragement
most important responsibility of interviewer and its objectives
– evoke adequate and complete responses
-focus and direct interview along the course of its objective
How and when to probe?
repeating the question, repeating the responses, using pauses or silent probe, boost confident of participants, listen for inconsistencies/ gaps/ambiguities

when: interview doesn’t understand comment, wants more detailed info, trying to uncover deeper motivations or feelings

why is taking notes by the interview ill-advised
-Interview will need to explain why this is being done
-Can be disruptive to the flow of the interview
4 steps of pretesting a questionnaire
1. original draft critiqued by an expert
2. personal interviews with small convenience sample of relevant respondents to make sure they understand the question the way you intended, then REVISE
3. personal interviews with small quota sample of respondents, then REVISE
4. field test with all conditions/procedures of questionnaire then REVISE and implement survey
Tom Greenbaum- why internet focus groups are not really focus groups
basic principles of focus groups are not present
1. Group dynamics
2. Non-verbal inputs
3. Security- don’t know who is actually participating
4.Attention to the topic- could be distracted
5. Exposure to external stimuli- difficult to gauge participants reactions to products, prototypes, etc
6.Role of moderator
benefits of online FG
-people from all over the world can participate
-can participate from the convenience of your home
-Georgraphical and time constraints lessened
-easier to reach segments that are typically harder to survey: doctors, lawyers, professionals, working mothers
-people are less inhibited in their responses
-less expensive than traditional FG
ZMET method is modeled after some basic theories of the human mind. What are they?
-Conscious thoughts occur as images.
-Most thought, emotion and learning occur without awareness.
-Emotion and reason are equally important.
-Cognition is embodied.
-Memory is story-based and readily distorted.
6 steps to marketing research process
1. Define problem/opportunity
2. Develop approach to problem
3. Formulate research design
4. Fieldwork/data collection
5. Data prep and analysis
6. Report preparation/presentation
basic purpose of marketing research for the decision maker?
reduce uncertainty in market strategy development and decision making
domino effect in MR process
quality of fieldwork > relevance of collected data > pertinence of the study
key issues to discuss with decision makers during a problem audit
– history of problem
– alternatives
– criteria to evaluate alternatives
– information need to answer decision maker’s question
– manner in which DM will use info for decision making
– corporate culture as it relates to decision making
what are mock tables/ figures/ maps
techniques used to improve the actionability of a research project- that is, linking marketing decision problems to marketing research problems.
o Ex. One example would be a map of business locations in the area that are currently available for purchase or rent, plus a table of costs, condition, constraints, etc.
o Ex. A cross tabulation of buying interest by different demographic groups in order to give insight into which groups to target most heavily with promotions in the early phases of a business start-up
3 types of research design
exploratory research design
Objectives: discovering ideas and insights
o Characteristics: Flexible, versatile, open-ended; case-specific; interpretive insights; sometimes univariate or correlational insights
o Methods: mining secondary sources; interviews; observation; projective techniques; focus groups
descriptive research design
o Objectives: describe market characteristics or functions
o Characteristics: usually structured; univariate and correlational insights; sometimes with prior hypotheses
o Methods: mining secondary sources; surveys; observation
causal research design
Objectives: determine cause and effect relationships
o Characteristics: highly structured; manipulation of 1 or more independent variables; random assignment of subjects to different conditions; often with prior hypotheses
o Methods: experiments
advantage of longitudinal research design over cross-sectional design
track and understand change over time
total error is composed of two broad categories. what are they?
random sampling error
non-sampling error
no. 2 market research crisis
non-response error
five main characteristics of focus groups
1. group size- 8-12
2. group composition- homogeneous; respondents prescreened
3. physical setting- relaxed, informal
4. time duration- 1-3 hours
5. recording- use of audiocassettes and videotapes
6. moderator- strong observational, interpersonal, and communication skills
name of sampling approach used to recruit people for FGs
direct (non-disguised) approach
common objectives of FGs
-get acquainted (with new market segment)
-get early reactions
-look for possible explanations to emerging problems
key qualities of FG moderator
-kind but firm
– permissive- permissive yet alert to signs that cordiality is disintegrating
-involvement- encourage deeper responses
-flexibility- be bale to improvise
5 reasons companies engage in marketing via online communities
1. research- need to contact more people in more places
2. depth- need to understand more realistically what consumers are doing, feeling, thinking
3. dynamic feedback- need to capture ongoing feedback
4. fast results- need for quick cycle: listen > observe/understand > generate idead > test and validate
5. cost-benefit value- need to do more with less financial investment
list 4 social media metrics
1. sentiment analysis
2. advocacy
3. conversation volume
4. share of voice
5. cost deflections
6. cost per conversion
two most common itemized rating scales
1. likert- degree of agreement on a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)
2. semantic differential- seven-point scale with bipolar labels
five important decisions in constructing itemized scales
1. number of categories/points
2. odd vs even number of categories- if neutral response is possible, number of categories should be odd, Mick says that it should never be “Don’t Know” or “No option”- use “neutral” instead
3. forced vs non-forced- if respondents are expected to have no opinion about a topic a “no option” choice will provide more accurate results
4. balanced vs unbalanced
5. verbal description
6. physical form or configuration- thermometer scale, smiling face scaling, vertical, horizontal
multiple choice questions should be
collectively exhaustive
mutually exclusive
respondents of surveys must be
willing, able, and understand the question
questionnaire problems
1. ambiguous
2. technical
3. double-barreled
4. leading
dichotomous question
has only two responses: yes/no, male/female
3 dimensions for categorizing observation methods
1. structured vs. unstructured
2. disguised vs. undisguised
3. natural vs contrived
trace analysis
– data collection based on physical traces or evidence of past behavior
1. searching through garbage to determine what people are buying, wasting
2. looking at the positon on car radios when they’re brought in for service to see what people are listening to
3. the age and condition of cars in a parking lot to assess affluence of customers
mechanical observation methods
observational research strategy in which mechanical devices rather than human observers record the phenomenon being observed- may or may not require the respondent’s direct participation
1. optical scanners at super markets
2. Turnstiles that record the number of people entering or leaving a building
3. RFID tags- Kmart tracing customer traffic patters via tech-equipped shopping carts
4. traffic counters placed across the streets to count the number of vehicles passing certain locations
5. voice-pitch analyzers, pupilometers, eye-tracking equipment
personal observation methodology in the anthro field is known as what
2 criteria crucial in personal observation
1. length of immersion in the environment by the researcher
2. trust of those being observed
projective techniques
intended to solicit insights on matters that are non-conscious, sensitive, and thereby not routinely available through other methods
-reveals motivations, beliefs, attitudes, feelings
projective techniques have “Freudian-like foundations” what does this mean?
assumes much of human behavior is driven by sublimated psychological issues of fear, fantasy, shame, desire, anger, revenge, self-esteem
advantage os projective techniques
-elicit responses from people regarding personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social norms that they may otherwise be unwilling to give
– can elicit motivations, beliefs, attitudes that are operating at a non-conscious level
disadvantages of projective techniques
-requires skilled, highly trained researchers to collect and analyze the responses
-need more than one independent interpreter to ensure objectivity
-ethical issues

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