# Marketing Research Final- Workhorse Scales

Modified Likert Scale
-respondents are asked to rate how strongly they agree or disagree with statements.
-ex: First set of questions on survey (does not have a true zero… neither does semantic)
Semantic Differential Scale
-7-point rating uses bipolar adjectives to anchor the scale.
-you can summate the scales or use it as a comparison method
Constant sum scale
-Used to assess brand preference or importance of attributes, benefits, or other characteristics
-Respondents allocate points across various choices….In other words, we give them a sum or a total and they have to spread them across (this makes it harder to answer because respondent must do math)
-Relative distance between ratings can be assessed
-Produces ratio level data
Life-style inventory
special application of Likert (it is really just a group of Likert scales) that deals with attitudes, opinions, lifestyles—– multiple measures all for the same objective; gives a lot of data about a group of people
ex:
□ changes in my schedule upsets me
□ I hate following a schedule
□ I more of less expect that nothing will go according to schedule
□ My daily activities are organized according to a schedule
Stapel Scale
measures both the direction and intensity of an attitude
-used to measure something abstract
-Looks like a ladder and measures using numbers worst-best (ex: best at the top and worst at the bottom → how do you feel your life is today)
Graphing scale for children
Ex: happy face scale (Like the one at neighborhood mkt)
key takeaways (4)
1. Choose the scale that measures what you want to measure

2. Decide how the data will be used:
Is nominal data acceptable? (it is easiest to gather)
What kinds of statistics will you be using? (if you need any type of statistical data, your measures have to be more in-depth than nominal data)

3. Different scales will provide different ways of looking at the same construct

4. Different scales will provide different levels of “information”