Marketing Research Chapter 4

qualitative research
Research whose findings are not subject to quantification or quantitative analysis
quantitative research
Research that uses mathematical analysis
qualitative research vs. quantitative research
qualitative is cheaper, better way to understand the in-depth motivations and feelings of consumers, qualitative research can improve efficiency of quantitative research
limitations of qualitative research
(1) attitudinal, perception, and belief differences revealed during qualitative research might not be easy to measure (2) often not statistically representative of the general population (3) anyone can purport to be an expert
focus group
A group of 8 to 12 participants who are led by a moderator in an in-depth discussion on one particular topic or concept
group dynamics
Interaction among people in a group
focus group facility
A research facility consisting of a conference room or living room setting and a separate observation room with a one-way mirror or live audiovisual feed
focus group moderator
A person hired by a client to lead the focus group; this person should have a background in psychology or sociology or, at least, marketing
discussion guide
A written outline of topics to be covered during a focus group discussion
instant analysis
Moderator debriefing, offering a forum for brainstorming by the moderator and client observations
individual depth interviews (IDI)
One-on one interviews that probe and elicit detailed answers to questions, often using non directive techniques to uncover hidden motivations
advantages of IDIs
group pressure eliminated, respondent feels important and truly wanted, greater flexibility to the direction of questioning, can be conducted anywhere
disadvantages of IDIs
costs in terms of time and money (not on a cost-per-respondent minute), less client involvement, does cover much material in one day, doesn’t allow for group discussion and resolution
hermeneutic research
Research that focuses on interpretation through conversations
Delphi Method
Rounds of individual data collection from knowledgeable people. Results are summarized and returned to the participants for further refinement. These issues are then consolidated by the researcher into a structured questionnaire.
projective test
A technique for tapping respondents’ deepest feelings by having them project those feelings into an unstructured situation
types of projective tests
word association tests, analogies, personification, sentence and story completion test, cartoon tests, photo sorts, consumer drawings, storytelling, third-person technique
word association test
Projective test in which the interviewer says a word and the respondent must mention the first thing that comes to mind
Comparison of two items based on similarities
Drawing a comparison between a product and a person
sentence and story completion test
A projective test in which respondents complete sentences or stories in their own words
cartoon test
A projective test in which the respondent fills in the dialogue of one of two characters in a cartoon
photo sort
A projective technique in which a respondent sorts photos of different types of people, identifying those people who she or he feels would use the specified product or service
consumer drawing
A projective technique in which respondents draw what they are feeling or how they perceive an object
A projective technique in which respondents are required to tell stories about their experiences, with a company or product, for example; also known as the metaphor technique
third-person technique
A projective technique in which the interviewer learns about respondents’ feelings by asking them to answer for a third party, such as “your neighbor” or “most people”

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