Marketing Research Chapter 2

Defining the problem
Crucial first step in the marketing research process
1st Step of Problem Defnition Process
Recognize Problem/Opportunity
– (can problem become opportunity?)
2nd Step of PDP
Find out why info is being sought
– (any suspect motives?)
3rd Step of PDP
Understand decision-making environment (industry, company, products, target market)
– Examine Cultural and bureaucracy issues
4th Step of PDP
Use the symptoms to clarify problem
– (determine cause and effect relationships)
5th Step of PDP
Translate MNGT problem into a MRKT Research problem
– (MNGT support is key)
6th Step of PDP
Determine if info already exists
– (have you researched other research?)
7th Step of PDP
Determine whether question can be answered
– (are the objectives clear and realistic?)
8th Step of PDP
State the research objectives
– (include timetable and responsible party)
Opportunity Identification
Using MRKT research to find and evaluate new opportunities
Situation Analysis
Studying the decision-making environment within which marketing research will take place
Exploratory Research
Preliminary research conducted to increase understanding of a concept, to clarify exact nature of problem to be solved, or to identify important variables to stay
Forms of Exploratory Research
Pilot Studies, Experience surveys, secondary data analysis, pilot studies case analysis, and focus groups
Pilot Studies
Surveys using a limited number of respondents and often employing less rigorous sampling techniques than are employed in large, quantitative studies
Experience Surverys
Second form of Exploratory Research
Experience Survey
Talking with knowledgeable individuals, inside and outside organization, who may provide insights into the problem
– More of an informal discussion
Secondary Data Analysis
Data that have been gathered for some purpose other than the one at hand
Case Analysis
Reviewing information from situations that are similar to the current one
Focus Groups
Most popular form of Exploratory Research
Iceberg Principle
Focusing on the symptoms and not the true problem
Step 5 of PDP – Translate MNGT problem into MRKT research problem
MNGT decision problem —–> MRKT Research Problem —–> MRKT research objective
Marketing Research Problem
Specifies what information is needed to solve the problem and how that information can be obtained efficiently and effectively
Marketing Research Objective
A goal statement, defining the specific information needed to solve the marketing research problem
MNGT Decision Problem
Statement specifying the type of managerial action required to solve the problem
– tend to be more broader
Research Hypothesis
Conjectural statement about a relationship b/w 2 or more variables that can be tested w/ empirical data
– EX: “Sales are declining b/c of our competitors”
Research Question
Questioning what the researcher wants to learn w/o making a claim about what might be causing the issue at hand
– EX: “We don’t know why sales are declining, so lets research the problem to find out”
Marketing Research Process
Identification of problem and statement of research objectives
Creation of research design
Choice of method of research
Selection of the sampling procedures
Collection of the data
Analysis of the Data
Writing and presenting report
2nd Step of MRKT Research Process
Creating the Research Design
– Research Design: Plan for addressing research objectives or hypotheses (first take is to decide whether research will be descriptive or casual)
– (exploratory, descriptive, casual, planning, implementing, controlling)
Descriptive Studies
Conducted to answer who, what, where, when, and how
-Purpose: confirm theories, brand loyalty measures, describes population, build customer profile, gain specific information
-Key methods: Secondary data, cross sectional surveys, longitudinal surveys, statistical data analysis
Cross-Sectional Surveys
One time snapshots of population
-Use same survey but different sample
Longitudinal Surveys
Identify market trends
– Use same survey and same sample
– Use tracking panels and groups
Casual Studies
Researcher investigates whether value of one variable causes or determines the value of another variable, in attempt to establish linkage b/w them
– Purpose: confirm theories, identify cause and effect, relationships among variables
– Key Methods: Surveys, experiments, time sequence, secondary data, systematic elimination
Dependent Variable
Symbol or concept expected to be explained or influenced by independent variable
– Stays the same
Independent Variable
Symbol or concept that researcher can control or manipulate
Temporal Sequence
Appropriate casual order of events
Concomitant Variation
Degree to which a presumed cause and a presumed effect occur together or vary together
Criteria for Causality
Temporal Sequence
Concomitant Variation
Spurious Association
Relationships b/w a presumed cause and a presumed effect that occurs as a result of an unexamined variable or set of variables
3 Basic Research Methods
Involves an interview who interacts w/ respondents to obtain facts, opinions, and attitudes
– Questionnaire, face to face
Examining patterns of behavior as opposed to asking consumers why they do what they do
– Usually descriptive research that monitors respondents’ actions w/o direct interaction
Research to measure causality in which researcher changes 1 or more independent variables and observes effect of changes on the dependent variable
-objective is to measure causality
Before a sampling procedure is selected
1) Population or universe of interest must be defined
2) Whether to use a probability sample or nonprobability sample
Probability Sample
Subset of a population where every element in population has a known nonzero chance of being selected
– Allows researchers to estimate how much sampling error is present
Nonprobability Sample
Subset of population which the chances of selection for the various elements in the population are unknown
– Researchers can’t determine degree of sampling error that can be expected
Interview-Based Data
collection is done by marketing research field services
Marketing Research Service Fields
Collect data through personal and telephone interviewing
Step 6 of MRP – Analysis of the Data
Use a variety of quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques
– Interpret and draw conclusions from the mass of collected data
Oral Report should contain
Clear Statement of Objectives
Outline of Methodology
Summary of major findings
End w/ presentation of conclusions and recommendations for MNGT
Research Request
Internal document used by MNGT to determine which projects to fund
– Action, Origin, Information, Use, Target Groups/Subgroups, Logistics, Comments
Request for Proposal (RFP)
Solicitation sent to marketing research suppliers inviting them to submit a formal proposal, including a bid
– lifeblood of a research suppliers
– Receiving this is initial step in getting new business
RFP provides
Background data on why study is conducted
Outlines research objectives
Describes a methodology
Suggests a time frame
Research Proposal
When receiving a RFP, they respond to potential client with ________
Definition of Research Proposal
Document that presents the research objectives, research design, time line, and cost of a project
Research Proposal contains:
Title Page
Statement of Research objectives
Study design
areas of questioning
data analysis
personnel involved
specifications and assumptions

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