Marketing Ch 7

Abercrombie & Fitch is developing a program to get to know its customers. Which of the following is not a reason why A&F needs to understand consumer buying behavior?

a. customer’s reactions to marketing strategy can impact the firm’s success
b. all customers are the same when it comes to buying behavior
c. a firm should create a marketing mix that satisfies customers
d. it helps the marketer predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies
e. the marketing concept stresses that a firm should know its customers

Purchasers who intend to use or benefit from the purchased product and do not buy products
to make profits are part of the

a. consumer market.
b. end-use consumption group.
c. business market.
d. household purchasing group.
e. organizational market.

Many aspects of consumer buying decisions are affected by the individual’s level of involvement. Level of involvement is

a. the importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation.
b. the buyer’s perception, motives, and abilities.
c. the amount of external search that an individual puts into the decision-making process.
d. the particular circumstance or environment in which consumers find themselves.
e. a combination of an individual’s demographic factors.

Justin is purchasing his third car in the past five years. He has been a car enthusiast ever
since he was a little boy. He likes to spend his free time looking at car magazines, going to
car shows, and watching NASCAR. Justin’s interest in cars is referred to as

a. situational involvement.
b. dynamic involvement.
c. enduring involvement.
d. dynamic buying behavior.
e. situational buying behavior.

A major determining factor in deciding which type of problem-solving process should be used
depends on the individual’s intensity of interest in a product and the importance of the
product for that person. This is known as an individual’s

a. motivational structure.
b. routinized response behavior.
c. level of involvement.
d. cognitive dissonance.
e. evaluative criteria.

Chloe and Max are searching for a health club to join. This purchase will likely be affected by
___________ involvement.

a. low
b. internal
c. enduring
d. evoked
e. perceived

Temporary and dynamic factors that result from a particular set of circumstance a consumer is facing when making purchase decisions characterize

a. enduring involvement.
b. extended problem solving.
c. selective exposure.
d. situational involvement.
e. selective retention.

The three most widely recognized types of consumer problem solving are:

a. limited problem solving, extended problem solving, and routinized response behavior.
b. extended problem solving, enduring problem solving, and situational problem
c. planned problem solving, impulse buying, and limited problem solving.
d. internal problem solving, external problem solving, situational behavior.
e. responsive behavior, planned behavior, and impulsive problem solving.

a– limited, extended, routine– LER
While shopping at a Kroger grocery store, Tom sees a display of his favorite brand of diet
cola. He buys a six-pack to take home for the weekend. This purchase process would be
described as

a. routinized response behavior.
b. extended problem solving.
c. limited problem solving.
d. situational perception.
e. enduring involvement.

Routinized response behavior is what a consumer does when

a. purchasing an unfamiliar product.
b. buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that need little effort.
c. an information search is extensive and may involve consulting with friends and
d. buying products that require a moderate amount of time for information gathering and deliberation.
e. he or she enters the problem recognition stage of the consumer buying
decision process.

In contrast to extended problem solving, routinized response behavior requires

a. careful deliberation before making a choice.
b. less information about products.
c. more time.
d. considerable thought.
e. more money.

When a consumer purchases products occasionally or needs information about an unfamiliar
brand in a familiar product category, he or she will most likely engage in

a. enduring purchase behavior.
b. routinized response behavior.
c. extended problem solving.
d. impulse searching.
e. limited problem solving.

Jenny plans to buy a new swimsuit for her spring break cruise. She has not seen this year’s styles and thus will do some comparison shopping before making a purchase decision. Jenny is engaging in

a. routinized response behavior.
b. extended problem solving.
c. limited problem solving.
d. impulse buying.
e. intensive problem solving.

For which of the following products would a consumer most likely use limited problem

a. Detergent
b. Toothpaste
c. Automobile
d. Hair dryer
e. Washing machine

Which of the following purchases would most likely require a consumer to use extended
problem solving?

a. Audio equipment
b. Shaving cream
c. Cereal
d. Kitchen napkins
e. Gasoline

Extended problem solving is the type of consumer problem-solving process that

a. involves no conscious planning but rather a powerful and persistent urge to buy something.
b. is the most complex problem-solving behavior, which comes into play when a purchase involves unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought products.
c. requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering and search.
d. is the creation and maintenance of a collection of products that satisfy a person’s needs and wants.
e. requires very little search-and-decision effort and is practiced when buying low-cost and frequently purchased products.

Jose and Teresa are searching for a new cellular phone. They will most likely engage in which one of the following forms of problem solving?

a. Extended problem solving
b. Limited problem solving
c. Impulse buying
d. Routinized response behavior
e. Intensive response behavior

An unplanned buying behavior resulting from a powerful urge to buy something immediately is called

a. impulse buying.
b. habitual buying.
c. compulsive response behavior.
d. non-problem solving.
e. cognitive dissonance.

Marissa goes to Target to purchase school supplies for her two children. As she is
approaching the check-out counter, she sees a vase she just has to have and buys it
immediately. Marissa’s purchase of the vase is an example of

a. limited problem solving.
b. impulse buying.
c. routinized response behavior.
d. addictive consumption.
e. situational involvement.

The five major stages of the consumer buying decision process, in order, are

a. information search, establishment of product criteria, evaluation of alternatives,
purchase, and post-purchase evaluation.
b. problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase,
and post-purchase evaluation.
c. problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, post-purchase evaluation and purchase.
d. information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, trial adoption period, and post-purchase evaluation.
e. problem recognition, purchase, evaluation of alternatives, post-purchase evaluation, and rebuy.

Problem recognition occurs when a consumer

a. searches for information to resolve a problem.
b. becomes aware that there is a difference between a desired state and an actual condition.
c. recognizes a need.
d. evaluates her or his purchase.
e. is exposed to a television advertisement.

As Steve is shopping for groceries, he notices a product on the shelf and remembers that he is about to run out of it at home. In terms of the consumer buying decision process, Steve
just experienced

a. problem recognition.
b. high involvement.
c. post-purchase evaluation.
d. information search.
e. evaluation of alternatives.

Within the information search step of the consumer buying decision process, what two
primary aspects exist?

a. Consideration sets and evoked sets
b. Personal information and non-personal information
c. Selective retention and selective distortion
d. Internal search and external search
e. Company-produced information and internal information

As Jeff runs out of shaving cream, he immediately tries to remember what he did the last time this happened. He is engaging in

a. external search.
b. consideration set development.
c. internal search.
d. cognitive dissonance.
e. alternative evaluation.

When, in their information search, consumers focus on communication with friends and
relatives, they are utilizing ______ sources.

a. internal
b. personal
c. marketer-dominated
d. direct
e. organizational

In the consumer buying decision process, the information search stage

a. yields a group of brands that a buyer views as possible alternatives.
b. involves a buyer becoming aware of the need for a product.
c. is not necessary when the buyer is involved in extensive decision making.
d. occurs immediately after evaluation of alternatives.
e. is lengthy for routine response buying behavior.

A publication such as Consumer Reports may be initially used during a(n)

a. product recognition.
b. evaluation of alternatives.
c. internal information search.
d. external information search.
e. purchase decision.

When shopping for detergent, Josh looks at Tide, Fresh Start, Surf, and All and chooses the
one that is on sale. These four brands make up his _________ set.

a. alternate
b. purchase
c. consideration
d. problem
e. imposed

A group of brands that a consumer views as alternatives for possible purchase is called a(n)

a. evoked set.
b. acceptance group.
c. brand preference.
d. selective retention group.
e. evaluation criteria.

Evaluative criteria for brands within the consideration set are both

a. selective and expansive.
b. objective and subjective.
c. internal and external.
d. extended and routinized.
e. perceptive and selective.

A customer shopping for a fax machine tells a salesperson that it is important for the fax
machine to have several attributes. It must use plain paper, be able to make copies, be
compatible with all other fax machines, and not require a separate phone line. The buyer has expressed his or her

a. framing characteristics.
b. service characteristics.
c. consideration set.
d. evaluative criteria.
e. information search criteria.

During the evaluation of alternatives stage of the consumer buying decision process, framing most likely influences the decision process of ___________ buyers.

a. younger
b. older
c. wealthier
d. veteran
e. inexperienced

Doubts in a buyer’s mind about whether the purchase decision made was the right one may
occur during the

a. cognitive dissonance.
b. purchase.
c. evaluation of alternatives.
d. internal search.
e. post-purchase evaluation.

After purchasing a new Lexus, Pablo sees an Infinity pass by on the street and begins to wonder if he made the right choice. Pablo is experiencing

a. problem recognition.
b. cognitive dissonance.
c. internal search.
d. alternative evaluation.
e. framing.

Cognitive dissonance is

a. the congruence between external and internal searches for product information.
b. a function of the manner in which the manufacturer of the product describes its attributes.
c. satisfaction with the purchase.
d. the establishment of criteria for comparing products.
e. doubts that occur because the buyer questions whether the decision to purchase the product was right.

The three major categories of influences on the consumer buying decision process are:

a. situational influences, demographic influences, and psychological influences.
b. social influences, situational influences, and marketer-dominated influences.
c. demographic influences, situational influences, and marketer-dominated
d. situational influences, social influences, and psychological influences.
e. marketer-dominated influences, psychological influences, and person-specific

The five categories of situational influences are:

a. product involvement level, physical surroundings, social surroundings, time perspective, and purchase reason.
b. antecedent states, physical surroundings, social surroundings, time
perspective, and space dimensions.
c. social surroundings, physical surroundings, time pressures, purchase reason,
and lifestyles.
d. purchase reason, time perspective, social surroundings, physical surroundings, and buyer’s momentary mood.
e. store atmosphere, location, aromas, sounds, and lighting.

___________ are situational influences that include the characteristics and interactions of others who are present when a purchase decision is being made, such as friends, relatives, and salespeople.

a. Physical surroundings
b. Social surroundings
c. Purchase reasons
d. Buyer’s momentary mood and condition
e. Pressures created by time factors

The primary psychological influences on consumer behavior are:

a. perception, motives, learning, attitudes, personality, and lifestyles.
b. attitudes, perception, retention, exposure, roles, and lifestyles.
c. attitudes, perception, social class, culture, and learning.
d. perception, motives, reference groups, social class, and personality.
e. lifestyles, personality, perception, motives, attitudes, and culture.

a- llampp
Perception is a three-step process that involves

a. motivation, personality, and attitudes.
b. classifying, recording, and eliminating information received through the senses.
c. collecting, eliminating, and organizing information inputs.
d. selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs.
e. anticipating, classifying, and discarding information inputs.

d- IOS
In the process of perception, individuals receive sensations through sight, sound, taste, smell, and hearing. These sensations are called

a. selective inputs.
b. olfactory receptors.
c. information inputs.
d. perceptual motives.
e. psychological influences.

Selective exposure refers to

a. targeting only certain parts of the total market.
b. admitting only certain inputs into consciousness.
c. the circumstances or conditions that exist when a consumer is making a
purchase decision.
d. the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs to
produce meaning.
e. remembering inputs that support personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting
those that do not.

As Brianna walks to classes, she selects, organizes, and interprets the sensations she is receiving through her sense organs. Brianna is experiencing the process of

a. exposure.
b. motivation.
c. learning.
d. attitude formation.
e. perception.

When individuals choose which information inputs will reach their awareness and ignore other inputs, they are using

a. perception.
b. selective distortion.
c. selective exposure.
d. cognitive dissonance.
e. selective retention.

If a consumer receives information that is inconsistent with her or his beliefs, the consumer
may alter this information. This perceptual process is known as selective

a. exposure.
b. distortion.
c. retention.
d. information.
e. organization.

After certain inputs have been selected to reach an individual’s awareness, the next step in the perceptual process is perceptual

a. organization.
b. attention.
c. retention.
d. interpretation.
e. redefinition.

When organizing perceptual inputs, people tend to mentally fill in missing elements in a pattern or statement. This principle is called

a. interpretation.
b. completion.
c. distortion.
d. closure.
e. linking.

Assignment of meaning to organized information inputs is called

a. motivation.
b. redefinition.
c. learning.
d. interpretation.
e. selection.

Consumers tend to remember information inputs that support their feelings and beliefs and
forget inputs that do not. This is known as selective

a. exposure.
b. distortion.
c. retention.
d. information.
e. organization.

Which of the following statements about how a consumer organizes inputs that reach awareness is most accurate?

a. Inputs are organized by individuals to produce meaning, and this organizational process is usually a slow one.
b. Organization of information inputs is not always needed to produce meaning.
c. Inputs that reach awareness are organized and interpreted in much the same way by all consumers.
d. Because a person interprets information in terms of what is familiar, only one interpretation of organized inputs is possible.
e. Inputs that reach awareness are organized to produce meaning, and this
meaning is interpreted in light of what is familiar to the individual.

Buyers’ actions are affected by one or more internal energizing forces geared toward satisfying needs, which are called

a. motives.
b. lifestyles.
c. perceptions.
d. attitudes.
e. traits.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs refers to the five levels of needs that humans seek to satisfy, from most to least important. These needs, in order from most to least important are

a. psychological, physiological, safety, social, and esteem.
b. physiological, safety, esteem, social, and self-actualization.
c. physiological, psychological, safety, social, and esteem.
d. physiological, safety, social, and esteem, self-actualization.
e. physiological, esteem, safety, self-actualization, and psychological.

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs,

a. individuals simultaneously try to satisfy all five levels of needs.
b. self-actualization needs are the most important needs to be met for most
c. individuals first address needs at the top of the pyramid and then move down to the lower level needs.
d. levels of needs are different for everyone, and we all try to satisfy them in a
different order.
e. individuals first satisfy the most basic needs and then try to fulfill needs at the
next level up.

Human requirements for love, affection, and a sense of belonging would be classified by
Maslow as _____ needs.

a. safety
b. esteem
c. social
d. physiological
e. self-actualization

Jana now feels that her teeth are not white enough after seeing advertisements for whitening toothpaste. Marketers promote these brands based on ___________ needs, appealing to
sex appeal.

a. physiological
b. esteem
c. self-actualization
d. psychological
e. social

People’s needs to grow, develop, and achieve their full potential are referred to by Maslow as ______ needs.

a. ego
b. esteem
c. self-actualization
d. social
e. safety

The U.S. Army recruits soldiers based on the slogan, “An army of one,” implying that people
can reach their full personal potential in the U.S. Army. This is an appeal to what need according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

a. Safety
b. Esteem
c. Self-actualization
d. Physiological
e. Social

Psychological influences that determine where a person purchases products on a regular basis are called

a. convenience responses.
b. patronage motives.
c. shopping motives.
d. pattern responses.
e. routine decisions.

Luis likes shopping at Stein Mart, a discount department store, because he likes the prices, products, and services the store provides. His selection of this store as a regular stop when
shopping is influenced by ___________ motives.

a. self-concept
b. self-image
c. projective
d. depth
e. patronage

An attitude is

a. an internal trait that makes a person unique.
b. a set of actions that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform.
c. a competence in performing activities.
d. a person’s behavior caused by information and experience.
e. one’s evaluation, feelings, and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea.

Having used both Secret and Sure deodorants, Annette feels that Secret is a good product and the one that best meets her needs. She has formed a(n) ___________ about Secret.

a. motive
b. consideration set
c. cognition
d. attitude
e. self-concept

Cognitive, affective, and behavioral are the three major components of

a. self-concept.
b. motives.
c. lifestyles.
d. consumer socialization.
e. attitudes.

What consumer research method consists of a series of adjectives, phrases, or sentences regarding an object, with subjects indicating the intensity of their feelings toward this object by reacting to these adjectives, phrases, or sentences?

a. Projective specification
b. Patronage clarification
c. Group interview
d. Attitude scale
e. Depth interview

Changing people’s attitudes toward a firm and its marketing program is

a. simple when advertisements are used.
b. impossible, even if the firm uses advertisements.
c. a long, expensive, and difficult task that may require extensive advertising
d. unnecessary, since consumer attitudes are of little importance.
e. rarely attempted through the use of marketing practice.

The results of many studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between buyer behavior and

a. personality.
b. perception.
c. motives.
d. social class.
e. learning.

Hereditary characteristics combined with personal experiences that together make an individual unique form one’s

a. self-concept.
b. attitudes.
c. lifestyle.
d. personality.
e. role.

The development of a person’s self-concept is a function of

a. learning.
b. psychological and social factors.
c. reference groups and opinion leaders.
d. roles and family influences.
e. subcultures.

The actions and activities associated with a position one holds within a group, organization, or institution constitute

a. personality.
b. a role.
c. a motive.
d. perception.
e. an attitude.

Jonathan is torn between buying a new swing set for his kids and buying a new set of Ping golf clubs for himself. Jonathan is experiencing

a. attitude formation.
b. belief assessment.
c. role inconsistency.
d. cognitive dissonance.
e. personality.

Shaun is going shopping with his dad to buy his first baseball glove for Little League. He listens to his dad talk to the salesperson at the sporting goods store, watches him examine the stitching in the glove and then rub his finger over the leather palm. Shaun’s observations
are part of his

a. consumer development.
b. attitude development.
c. purchasing evaluation.
d. consumer socialization.
e. consumer attitude.

Jennifer is interested in joining Kappa Lambda Iota sorority. She begins to shop at Sarah’s, a local store where the Kappas buy their clothes. She also asks her family for a new car
because all the sorority members have new cars. In these instances, Jennifer is influenced

a. personality.
b. a reference group.
c. a consideration set.
d. a knowledge base.
e. a role conflict.

The three major types of reference groups are:

a. membership, aspirational, and advocacy.
b. advocacy, avoidance, and approach.
c. aspirational, disassociative, and membership.
d. actual, implied, and desired.
e. family, peer group, and media.

c. DAM
Which of the following statements regarding social class is true?

a. A social class is a closed aggregate of people with similar social ranking.
b. The criteria used to group people into social classes do not vary from one
culture to another.
c. A social class is an open aggregate of people with similar social ranking.
d. A social class is a ranking of people by other members of society into positions
of social respect.
d. A social class is an open aggregate of people with different social rankings.

c. open; similar ranking
An open aggregate of people with similar social ranking is referred to as a

a. reference group.
b. social class.
c. role.
d. caste.
e. subculture.

According to Coleman’s major social class categories, which of the following social classes in our culture has these characteristics: lives in well-kept neighborhoods, likes fashionable items, and is often found in management positions?

a. Lower class
b. Upper class
c. Middle class
d. Working class
e. First class

According to Coleman’s major social class categories, the social class in our society that
favors prestigious schooling, neighborhoods, and brands is the

a. upper class.
b. middle class.
c. upper-lower class.
d. working class.
e. lower class.

According to Coleman’s social class categories, the social class that includes approximately 40 percent of the population, shops for bargains, and buys sports and recreational equipment
is the

a. upper class.
b. middle class.
c. first class.
d. working class.
e. lower class.

A culture can be divided into subcultures according to

a. personality characteristics of individuals in that culture.
b. motives that members of that cultural group have for their behavior.
c. geographic regions or human characteristics, such as age or ethnic background.
d. income levels.
e. information to which consumers allow themselves to be exposed.

Market researchers for a local bakery determined that Jewish people consume 63 percent of
the portion of bagels sold in New York City. This is an example of ___________ influence on consumer buying decision processes.

a. demographic
b. situational
c. subcultural
d. role
e. social class

Which American subculture spends the highest proportion of its income on utilities, footwear, children’s apparel, groceries, and housing?

a. Native Americans
b. Hispanics
c. African Americans
d. Asian Americans
e. Americans over 65 years of age

Which of the following is the fastest growing, most affluent subculture in the United States?

a. African Americans
b. Hispanics
c. Asian Americans
d. Native Americans
e. Italian Americans


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