marketing and society

1937 AMA marketing definition
Marketing is “those business activities involved in the flow of goods and services from production to consumption.” (1937)
1960 AMA marketing definition
“[T]he performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producers to consumers.” (1960)
Kotler and Zaltman’s Marketing Management (1971)
“Marketing management is the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of programs designed to bring about desired exchanges with target audiences for the purpose of personal and mutual gain. It relies heavily on the adaptation and
coordination of product, price, promotion, and place for achieving effective response.”
1985 AMA Marketing Definition
Marketing is “the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and
organizational goals.”
2004 AMA Marketing Definition
“Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.”
2006 Gronroos Promises Management Definition
“Marketing is a customer focus that permeates organizational functions and processes and is geared towards making promises through value proposition, enabling the fulfilment of individual expectations created by such promises and fulfilling such expectations through support to customers value-generating processes, thereby supporting value creation in the firm’s as well as its customers’
and other stakeholders’ processes.”
2007 AMA Marketing Definition
“Marketing is the activity, set of
institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”
Definitions of Society
-An entirety of social relationships among a group of people

-A group of people distinguished from other groups on the basis of mutual interest, shared institutions, or common culture

-A formal association or organization of people with similar interests or a certain set of accomplishments.

Ethics refers to the moral principles or values that generally govern the conduct of an individual or group. Ethics can also be viewed as the standard by which conduct is judged.
Subsistence Marketplace
Consists of consumer and entrepreneurs who live at or near subsistence levels, (act of maintaining or supporting oneself at a minimum level).
1971 Kotler and Zaltman Social Marketing Definition
“Social marketing is the design,
implementation, and control of
programs calculated to influence the
acceptability of social ideas and
involving considerations of product
planning, pricing, communication,
distribution, and marketing research”
1973 Lazer and Kelly Social Marketing Definition
“Social marketing is concerned with the application of marketing knowledge,concepts and techniques to enhance social as well as economic ends. It is also concerned with analysis of the social consequence of marketing
policies, decisions and activities”
1994 Andreasen Social Marketing Definition
“Social marketing is the adaptation of commercial marketing technologies to programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target audiences to improve their personal welfare and that of the society of which they are a
Norm Definition
“a rule that governs a pattern of social behaviour… On the one hand, a norm may encapsulate the usual behaviour within a society (and is thus a norm in the
sense of being statistically normal
behaviour). On the other hand, the norm is a pattern of behaviour that is desired or prescribed, whether or not actual behaviour complies with this ideal”
Culture Jamming Definition
The practice of parodying advertisement and hijacking billboards in order to drastically alter their messages.
An effort to reverse and turn around the interpreted meaning
a fancy word for having multiple meanings
self-regulation definition
“voluntary control of business
conduct and performance by
business itself. It is control
exercised by an advertiser’s peers,
including those in agencies and
media used”
Advertising Standards of Canada Definition
Advertising Standards Canada is the not-for-profit industry body committed to creating and maintaining community confidence in advertising. Its mission is to ensure the integrity and viability of
advertising through industry self-regulation
Deceptive Advertising Definition
Deceptive advertising has been defined as marketing communication that likely results in
consumers having information or beliefs that are incorrect or cannot be substantiated
Puffery Definition
Refers to vague and highly exaggerated or “over the top” claims. as “1) representations
that ordinary consumers do not take
literally, 2) expressions of opinion not made as a representation of fact, 3) subjective claims (taste, feel, appearance, smell) and hyperbole that are not capable of objective measurement.”
Semiotics Definition
The science/theory of signs
Rhetorical figure
An artful deviation from the expectation. Rhetoric is the ways in which signs influence people.
Regulation Definition
Any constraint imposed on the normal freedom of individuals by the legitimate act of government
Policy Analysis
“a systematic evaluation of
the technical and economic feasibility and political viability of alternative policies, strategies for implementation, and the consequences of policy adoption”
Vulnerable Consumers
Those who many not fully understand the implications of marketing messages
At-Risk Consumers
Those who have the cognitive abilities and defence mechanisms to qualify as Sophisticated but have other disadvantages
Cuse-related marketing definition
“The process of formulating and implementing marketing activities that are characterized by an offer from the firm to contribute a specified amount to a designated cause when customers
engage in revenue-providing exchanges that satisfy organizational and individual objectives”
a lack of brand knowledge
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