Marketing 351: Chapter Five Attitudes

An overall evaluation that expresses how much we like or dislike an object, issue, person, or action.
Attitudes are learned, and they tend to:
Persist over time
___________ also reflect our overall evaluation of something based on the set of associations linked to it.
Attitudes are important because they:
1. Guide our thoughts
2. Influence our feelings
3. Affect our behavior
Function that guides our thoughts
Cognitive function
Function that influences our feelings
Affective function
Function that affects our behavior
Connative function
What are the five main characteristics that attitudes can be described in?
1. Favorability
2. Attitude Accessibility
3. Attitude Confidence
4. Persistence
5. Resistance
This characteristic of an attitude refers to how much we like or dislike an attitude object.
This characteristic of an attitude refers to how easily and readily an attitude can be retrieved from memory.
Attitude accessibility
This characteristic of an attitude refers to how strongly we hold an attitude.
Attitude confidence
This characteristic refers to how long our attitude lasts.
Attitude persistence or endurance
The characteristic that refers to how difficult it is to change an attitude.
Attitude resistance
When our evaluations regarding a brand are mixed with both positive and negative feelings.
Marketers can better create or influence customers’ attitudes toward new offerings and novel behaviors when they understand:
How attitudes are formed
The foundation of attitudes are said to be based on:
Cognitions or Affects (Feelings/Emotions)
The _________ aspect is related to the experience of the product.
The _________ aspect is related to the product’s function.
The attitude formation and change process when effort is high, meaning thinking about the product’s message requires some effort.
Central-Route processing
The attitude formation and change process when effort is low, meaning thinking about the product’s message requires little effort.
Peripheral-route processing
When consumers are likely to devote a lot of effort to processing information, markets can influence consumer attitudes either:
Cognitively or Affectively
What are the five cognitive models?
1. Direct or imagined experience
2. Reasoning by analogy or category
3. Values-driven attitudes
4. Social-identity-based attitude generation
5. Analytical processes of attitude construction
The cognitive model which is described as:

“Elaborating on an actual experience with a product or service, or even imagining it, can help customers form a positive or negative attitude on the product.”

Direct or Imagined experience
The cognitive model which is described as:

“Considering how similar a product is to other products or to a particular product category.”

Reasoning by Analogy or Category
The cognitive model which is described as:

“Forming an opinion based off of your personal values.”

Values-Driven Attitudes
The cognitive model which is described as:

“The way that customers view their own social identities can play a role in forming their attitudes toward products or brands.”

Social-Identity-Based Attitude Generation
The thoughts a person has when he or she is exposed to a communication, which may take the form of recognitions, evaluations, associations, images, or ideas.
Cognitive responses
Thoughts that express disagreement with the message.
Thoughts that express agreement with the message.
Support arguments
Thoughts that discount or attack the message source.
Source derogations
When a message is different from what consumers believe.
Belief discrepancy
Consumers tend to generate more counterarguments and fewer support arguments when the message content: (2 reasons)
– Differs from what they already believe
– The message is weak
Consumers come up with more support arguments and fewer counterarguments when:
They are involved with the TV program in which a commercial appears
Analytical processes that explain how consumers form and change attitudes based on (1) the beliefs or knowledge they have about an object or action and (2) their evaluation of these particular beliefs.
Expectancy-value models
The expectancy-value model known as the __________ provides an expanded picture of how, when, and why attitudes predict consumer behavior, particularly in the United States.
Theory of Reasoned Action — known as TORA
The TORA model proposes that behavior is a function of a person’s:
Behavioral Intention
The TORA model proposes that Behavioral Intention is determined by:
1. The person’s attitude toward the act
2. The subjective norms
What is a person’s attitude toward the act affected by?
1. Beliefs about the consequences of engaging in the behavior
2. The consumer’s evaluation of the consequences
What are subjective norms affected by?
1. The consumer’s normative beliefs
2. Motivation to comply
Defined as – “what we do.”
Defined as – “what we intend to do.”
Behavioral Intention
Defined as – “how we feel about doing something.”
Attitude toward the act
Defined as – “How others feel about our doing something.”
Subjective norms
Defined as – “How other people influence our behavior through social pressure.”
Normative influences
An extension of the TORA model that predicts behaviors over which consumers perceive they have control.
Theory of planned behavior
What are the major strategies that marketers can use for guidance changing attitudes, intentions, and behavior?
1. Change beliefs
2. Change evaluations
3. Add a new belief
4. Encourage attitude formation based on imagined experience
5. Target normative beliefs
Among consumers who process information extensively, those with attitudes based on cognitions are likely to be influenced by:
Believable information
The extent to which the source is trustworthy, expert, or has status.
When a consumer forgets the source of a message more quickly than they forget the message.
Sleeper effect
Three factors affect the credibility of the message. What are they?
1. The quality of its argument
2. Whether it is a one-sided or two-sided message
3. Whether it is a comparative message
Present the best features or central merits of an offering in a convincing manner.
Strong arguments
Commercial messages that can last 30-60 minutes – allow companies enough time to explain complicated, technologically advanced, or innovative goods or services.
A marketing message that presents only positive information.
One-sided message
A marketing message that presents both positive and negative information.
Two-sided message
Show how much better the offering is than a competitor’s.
Comparative message
A type of message in which your product is compared to a competitors, but instead of naming the competitor, it says a “leading brand” or “competitor.”
Indirect comparative message
A type of advertisement in which the advertisement explicitly names and attacks a competitor or set of competitors on the basis of an attribute or benefit.
Direct comparative advertising
A customer whose goal is to maximize their gains and positive outcomes (Product X is superior to Product Y)
Promotion focused consumers
A customer whose goal is to minimize their loss and risk (Brand X is similar to Brand Y)
Prevention focused
When affective involvement with an object or decision is high, consumers can experience:
Fairly strong emotional reactions to or engagement with a stimulus.
Refers to the extent to which consumers are emotionally connected to a product or ad.
A customer’s feelings act as:
A source of information, because consumers will rely on them to make decisions in regards to a stimulus.
When consumers generate feelings and images in response to a message.
Affective responses
Messages designed to elicit an emotional response.
Emotional appeals
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