Marketing 3040-Attitudes

A learned, relatively global and enduring predisposition toward an object, issue, person or action
Cognitive dissonance theory
Consistency theories
Change cognitive structure to achieve more consistency
Traditional view-Attitudes are important because they:
1. guide our thoughts (the COGNITIVE FUNCTION) 2.influence our feelings (the AFFECTIVE FUNCTION) and 3.affect our behavior (the CONNATIVE FUNCTION)
Attitudes can be described in terms of five main characterisitcs: (***Possible SA)
1.Favorability 2. Attitude accessibility 3.Attitude confidence 4.Persistance 5. resistance
the degree to which we like or dislike something
Attitude accessibility
How easily an attitude can be remembered
Attitude confidence
How strongly we hold an attitude
Attitude persistence
How long our attitude lasts
Attitude resistance
How difficult it is to change an attitude
Attitude ambivalence
when our evalutions regarding a brand are mixed (both positive and negative)
One approach to attitude formation suggests that attitudes are based on
cognitions. This means attitudes can be based on thoughts we have about info received from an external source (such as salespeople, advertising, internet etc)
A second approach to attitude formation suugest that attitudes are based on
emotions. Sometimes we have a favorable attitude toward an offering simply because it feels good or seems right.
Motivations, ability, opportunity
When MAO is high, consumers are more likely
to devote a lot of effort toward and become very involved in forming or changing attitudes and making decisions. This is also known as CENTRAL ROUTE PROCESSING
Central route processing
the attitude formation and change process when effort is high
Peripheral route processing
The attitude formation and change process when effort is low (MOA is low)
When consumers are likely o devote a lot of effort to processing inf, marketers can influence consumer attitudes either
1. cognitively (influencing the thoughts or beliefs they have about the offering) or 2. Affectively (influencing the emotional experiences consumers associate with the offering)
The five cognitive models: (**Possible SA)
1. Direct or imagined experience 2.reasoning by analogy or category 3.Values-driven attitudes 4.Social identity-based attitude generation 5.Analytical processes of attitude construction
Direct or imagined experience
Elaborating on actual experience with a product or service (or even imagining what that experience could be like) can help consumers form positive or negative attitudes.
Reasoning by analogy or category
consumer also form attitudes by considering how similar a product is to other products or to a particular product category.
Values-Driven attitudes
Attitudes can also be shaped based on individual values.
Social identity-based attitude ge3neration
the way that consumers view their own social identities can play a role in forming their attitudes toward products or brands. (ie sports apparel sponsored by favorite athlete)
Analytical processes of attitude formation
Consumers sometimes use a more analytical process of attitude formation in which, after being exposed to marketing stimuli or other information, they form attitudes based on their cognitive responses
Cognitive response
thoughts we have in response to a communication
Cognitive response model
Consumers exert a lot of effort in responding to the message-enough effort to generate counterarguments, support arguments, and source derogations.
Counterarguments (CAs)
thoughts that disagree with the message
Support Arguments (SAs)
Thoughts that agree with the message
Source drogations (SDs)
Thoughts that discount or attack the source of the message (seeing an ad consumer might think “that guy is lying:)
Belief discrepency
When a message is different from what consumers believe
TORA (Theory of Reasoned Action)
A model that provides an explanation of how, when, and why attitudes predict behavior. The model proposes that behavior (B) is a funtion of a person’s BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI), which in turn is determined by 1.the person’s ATTITUDE TOWARD THE ACT (A^act) and 2.the SUBJECTIVE NORMS (SN) that operate in the situation.
The theory of planned behavior
an extension of the TORA model that predicts behaviors over which consumers perceive they have control
Expectancy value models are
analytical processes that explain how consumers form and change attitudes based on 1. the beliefs or knowledge they have about and object and 2. their evaluation of these particular beliefs
Marketing messages must be _________to generate ____________, restrict __________ and source derogations and increase ________ ________.
credible; support arguments; counterarguments; belief strength
Sources are credible when they have one or more of three characteristics:
worthiness, expertise, status
Consumers forget the source of a message more quickly than they forget the actual message
Sleeper effect.
Three factors affect the credibility of a message
the quality of its argument, whether it is a one-sided or two-sided message, and whether it is a comparative message
Two sided message
a marketing message that presents both positive and negative information
Comparative messages
messages that make direct comparisons with competitors
the two types of comparative messages are:
Indirect comparative message ( in which the offering is compared with those of unnamed competitors such as “other leading brand”) and Direct comparative message (advertisers explicitly name and attack a competitor on the basis of an attribute or benefit (often used in political campaigns)
Affective involvement
expending emotional energy and heightened feelings regarding an offering or activity
Affective responses
when consumers generate feelings and images in response to a message
Three major factors have been found to lead to a positive Attitude toward the ad
More informative ads tend to be better liked and to generate positive responses (UTILITARIAN OR FUNCTIONAL DIMENSION); 2.Consumers can like an ad if it creates positive feelings or emotions (the HEDONIC DIMENSION); 3. Consumer can like an ad bc it is interesting-it arouses curiosity and attracts attention

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