Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping
Assess the critical differences between the developmental strategies of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. To what extent was each successful in contributing to the economic and social development of china? Introduction This paper aims to find out the differences between the developmental strategies of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping are important characters of China’s history. Both great leaders and both tried to bring about reform with China.
In addition, through the facts that society in China has been changing in recent decades, evaluate the achievements of each in the contribution to economic and social development of China. Developmental strategies of Mao Zedong Mao Zedong has proposed many strategies in the construction of Chinese socialism. Below are the main points: 1. Mao addresses that in the socialist construction, China should combine Marxism-Leninism with the country’s real situation, taking the experience of Soviet Union as Warning, then go the Chinese own way.
Mao insisted to learn, not to copy the successful experience of other countries in the exploration of Chinese socialist construction. 2. Mao’s social-political programs taking the revolution and development of productivity as a compass for work. Such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. 3. Mao’s determination to
Mao’s determination to create a new socialist society-the first (non-soviet) ’communist society. Gathering all the positive elements to serve the socialist construction. Positive elements include the domestic and overseas power. This strategy is for improving productivity base on the large population and weak economy of China. Developmental strategies of Deng Xiaoping As Mao’s leadership ended, Deng took the flag to lead the development of China. There were some prominent strategies made by Deng: 1. Implementing the reform and opening up for China’s economy and society development.
In the 1978, Deng is the designer of reform and opening to the outside world(gai ge kai fang), he has a famous saying:”Black cat or white cat, if it catches mice, it is a good cat. ” During 30 years of reform and opening up, Chinese people experience raising living standard and harmony happy life. 2. Proposing “one country with two systems” policy to call-back Hong Kong. 3. Placing economic construction in the centre of all missions, with insistence of four principles and the reform and opening up. This strategy is the guiding plan to build a socialist country with Chinese characteristics. 4.
Keeping a low profile on the diplomatic route of peaceful development. Deng’s policy in establishing relationship with other countries has greatly enhanced China’s international status. 5. Regarding science and technology as the primary productivity, acknowledging intellectuals as part of the working class. 6. Resuming the examination for college education and attaching importance to developing education. Differences of Developmental strategies between Mao and Deng Though Mao and Deng were both aiming for the same thing to contribute to China’s development, by comparing their strategies, some differences can still be found.
These differences have great meaning for China. Below are the differences: First, Mao and Deng’s developmental strategies differ in their history backgrounds. Mao’s thoughts were greatly affected by war and revolution, thus his strategies were born for being suitable for the demand of Chinese revolution. Mao’s strategies have a strong war time character. On the other hand, Deng’s strategy is under the situation of a peaceful world. Deng’s strategy is formed up in probing the way to build a socialist society with Chinese character.
So it reflects a rather modern developing trend of current world. Second, Mao’s thought is the first major theoretical result of Marxism in China, while Deng’s comes the second. Mao’s strategy is a combination of Marxism-Leninism and the concrete practice of China’s revolution. It uses Marxist as a stand, formed up in relation to the experience of Chinese revolution. It is proved to be a suitable strategy for Chinese revolution. Deng’s strategy is derived from that of Mao. It is a combination of Marxism-Leninism and the contemporary practice of China and the features of the times.
It is inheritance of Mao’s strategy under new historical conditions. Third, Deng’s strategy attaches more importance to education. Few of Mao’s strategy is helping develop people’s education level, some even destroy the education system, such as the Great Culture Revolution during 1966 to 1976. Deng took great value on intellectuals, viewing intellectuals as a big power in socialist construction. He resumed the examination for entering college, which is a symbolic success in the education history of China. Forth, Deng’s strategy is more out-going.
Due to the history background restriction,, Mao’s strategy focused on domestic problems, which left no time for him to consider how to build relationship with the outside world. But from Deng’s strategy we can see a lot out-going elements. Deng strongly promoted diplomacy and highly raise the flag of reform and opening-up. Under the leadership of Deng, China has repaired relationship with Japan, America and many other countries, which wins peaceful environment for China’s economy and social development. Analysis Successful Achievements of Mao Zedong
Mao has done something successes on 1949-1976. On October 1st 1949, Mao Zedong proclaims the foundation of the People Republic of China on Great of Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen) in Beijing (Source from: Lecture notes). In January 1958, Mao started a variety of economic, agricultural and cultural reforms. One of the many reforms started by Mao Zedong launched “The Great Leap forward”. This began in 1958 to help change China. Mao proposed the land reform and suggested to develop city. The reform makes women, industry workers and peasant became winners.
However, Peasant also got land and change to owner. As far as women’s literacy is concerned. There are not women in class when Mao did not launch reforms. After that, women can go to school have a class. The plan was to originally keep China communist, and increase production of agriculture. Mao Zedong put much emphasis on economic growth, which was very important to China. Analysis unsuccessful of Mao Zedong After the Great Leap forward, Mao had launched Great proletarian Cultural Revolution. Unfortunately it was unsuccessful.
By 1970, some attempts to stabilize situation, students had been send to countryside to learn from the peasants. As we known “sent down youth” far away from Beijing etc. in fact, a part of students. If they do not work hard, we will not have an opportunity back to Beijing. Deng Xiaoping internally exiled, under house arrest in Sichuan province. Mao made great contribution to the industry development of China. At the early stage of state’s establishment, China didn’t have any foundation of industry, even the oil for light had to be imported from other country.
However, after 28 years’ high speeded industrialization, China successfully built up a fine industry system. In 1952, the portion of industry in GNP (gross national product) was only 28%, while in 1975, the portion became 72%. Under the leadership of Mao, China’s Gross Industrial Output Value grew up for 30 times. Even in the Great Culture Revolution, the speed of industry development was 10 times faster than before. Below is a table of data about the development of some industry departments: Industry Department |Quantity of Output in 1952 |Quantity of Output in 1976 | |Steel |1,400,000 tons |31,800,000tons | |Coal |66,000,000tons |617,000,000tons | |Cement |3,000,000tons |65,000,000tons | |Wood |11,000,000tons |51,000,000tons | |Electricity |7 billion KW/h |256 billion KW/h | |Crude oil |0 ton |104,000,000 tons | |Chemical fertilizer |39,000tons |8,693,000tons | Mao’s develop strategies led prominent change of China, what’s more, all these achievements were made during very cruel international environment with wars around. When Mao passed away, there is no foreign debt or inflation left, which is rare in the history of developing country. Apart from the contribution to economy development, Mao’s strategy also contributed a lot to the social development of China. Under the guidance of
Mao, China changed from a semi-colony and semi-feudal society to a socialist society; from a slave country to a united country (except Taiwan); from a country discriminated by foreigners to a country respected by international society. Analysis Successful Achievements of Deng Xiaoping The reason why China can grow up to be this strong today in a stable way in recent 30 years can be concluded as the contribution of Deng’s developmental strategies. After the Great Cultural Revolution, Deng has been using his foresight to guide the way of China. Insisting the opening mind and seek truth from facts, Deng established the theory of building a socialist society with Chinese character, by the way raised the reform and opening up policy.
During the 30 years of reform and opening up, China gained great development in both economy and social fields. Regarding the economy development, Deng’s strategy made a prominent success in combining marketing economy with Chinese socialist. The first praiseworthy achievement of Deng is that he clarified confusion of class struggle and brought things back to order: redressing the injustice cases in the period of the Great Cultural Revolution and assess Mao’s right and wrong in a scientific way. The second big achievement is that Deng’s over ten years (1979-1992) efforts in promoting reform and opening up policy provided a suitable economic system to motive market.
From 1980 to 1997, GDP increased from 10% per annum ( source from lecture), nearly 60 times increase, which is an incredible page of the world’s economic history. Things went even brilliant in social development. The “one country with two systems” policy solved the problem of Hong Kong and Macao’s return, which has largely improved the unifying of country. The education strategy leads the education in China face modernization and the world. At the beginning of resuming examination for college, there were 5. 7 million people attended the examination with only 27, 0000 enrolled. Deng’s strategy also contributes to the field of aerospace and sports. It is graceful that the contribution Deng’s strategy made is still influencing the current society in China.
It covers the regions of philosophy, economy, science, policy, culture and party construction. It is a quiet mature system but at the same time needs to be further improved. Conclusion The difference between the developmental strategies of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping leads contribution in various fields of China. They marked success respectively in two different history times. It is believed that the influence of their strategies is not over yet. People should still probe and learn from the strategies in searching the way of future development. Reference Chen, XJ 2002, ‘The economic construction thoughts of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping’, Economy and Social Development, vol 10, pp14-16.
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