Male Reproductive

What does the Scrotum house?
Testes
Epididymis
At what temperature can sperm survive?
3 degrees lower than body temperature
Which muscle is responsible for changing scrotum position?
Cremaster muscle
How do sperm survive in cold weather?
Cremaster muscle contracts
-> testes pulled closer to warmth of body wall
-> scrotum shrinks to reduce heat loss
How do sperm survive in warm weather?
Scrotal skin is flaccide and loose
-> increase surface for cooling
-> cremaster muscle relaxes -> testes hang lower
What is the male copulatory organ?
Testes
What does penis do?
Deliver sperm into female reproductive tract
What are the male gonads?
Testes
Compositions of testes
1. Seminiferous tubules
2. Interstitial cells
What are seminifirous tubules’ function?
Contain cells that produce male gametes (sperm)
Where are interstitial cells found?
Between seminiferous tubules
What do interstitial cells do?
Produce testosterone
What are 2 functions of testosterone
1. Promps spermatogenesis
2. Male sex characteristics (pubic, axillary, facial hair, deepens voice, bone and muscle growth)
How is epididymis formed?
Between convergence of all seminiferous tubules
How do sperms learn how to swim?
Sperm leaving testes are non-motile.
As they travel for 20 days through epididymis to learn to swim.
How long can sperm be stored in epididymis?
Several months
After that sperms are phagocytized
Function of ductus deferens
Propel live sperm from epididymis into urethra
What kind of muscle is in the ductus deferens
Smooth muscle
What is the function of smooth muscle of vas deferens?
Creates strong peristalsis wave that rapidly squeez sperm forward.
What procedure ligates vas deferens and prevent delivery of sperm to penis?
Vasectomy
What does vasectomy procedure do?
ligates vas deferens and prevent delivery of sperm to penis
Where is the urethra?
Terminal portion of the male duct system
Function of urethra
Conveys both urine and semen (at different time)
Name 3 acessary glands of male reproductive system
1. Seminal vesicles
2. Prostate
3. Bulbourethral glands
What do acessary glands produce?
Seminal fluid
How much seminal fluid does seminal vesicle produce?
60%
How much seminal fluid does prostate produce?
30%
How much seminal fluid does bulbourethra produce?
5-10%
Where are sperm and seminal fluid mixed
Ejaculatory duct
Then enter the prostatic urethra together
What does bulbourethral gland produce?
Alkaline mucus
When does bulbourethral gland produce secretion?
Prior (before) ejacuation
-> Neutralize acidic urine in urethra
What does hypertrophy of protate gland cause?
Constriction of urethra
-> difficult to void
-> common in elderly men
What is semen?
Sperm and accessory gland secretions
How much sperm is contained in 1 ml of semen?
20-150 million sperm
Function of semen
Transport
-> facilitate sperm movement
-> Supply nutrients and chemicals that protect, activate, and facilitate sperm.
What are the chemicals found in semen?
1. Fructose (sperm fuel)
2. Prostaglandin (decrease viscosity of cervical mucus)
3. Enzymes (sperm mobility)
What does fructose do in semen?
Fuel for sperm
What does prostaglandin do in semen?
decrease viscosity of cervical mucus
What do enzymes do in semen?
Enhance sperm motility
How acidic/basic is semen?
Partially alkaline to neutralize vagina acidity
How many chromosomes do human have?
46 (diploid)
What do diploid cells contain? What are they called?
23 pairs of similar chromosomes
-> Homologues chromosomes (1 from dad, 1 from mom)
How many chromosomes in gamete?
What are they called?
23 chromosomes
one member of each homologous pair
-> haploid
Define mitosis (3 features)
1. Occurs w/ all body cells
2. distributes replicated chromosomes equally between two daughter cells
3. daughters are identical to parent cells
Define meiosis (4 features)
1. Only in gametes
2. two consecutive nuclear devisions
3. Produces 4 daughter cells with half as many chromosomes (haploid)
4. Daughter cells are unique to others and to parents
Structures that regulate spermatogenesis and testosterone
1. Hypothalamus
2. Anterior pituitary
3. Testes
What hormone does hypothalamus produce?
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
What hormone does anterior pituitary gland produce?
1. FSH
2. LH
What hormone does testes produce?
1. Testosterone
2. Inhibin
What produces Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
Hypothalamus
What produces FSH and LH?
Anterior pituitary
What produces testosterone and inhibin
Testes
What is the function of testosterone?
1. Prompts spermatogenesis
2. Anabolic effects throughout body
3. Basis of sex drive (libido)
What is deficiency of testosterone called?
Atrophy
Functions of inhibin
Released with high sperm count to stop GnRH
What kind of cells produces testosterone?
Interstitial cells
What kind of cells produces inhibin?
Sustentocytes cells
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