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Logic Model Development Guide

Introduction
If you don’t cognize where you’re traveling. how are you gon na ’ know when you get at that place? –Yogi Berra In line with its nucleus mission – To assist people help themselves through the practical application of cognition and resources to better their quality of life and that of future coevalss – the W. K. Kellogg Foundation has made plan rating a precedence. As our staff and grantees work on a spectrum of societal betterment plans. the demand for determining and lending to the organic structure of cognition sing rating becomes progressively clear. Our first usher. the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook. was published in 1998. and has been made available to about 7. 500 people. The Evaluation Handbook is a practical. bit-by-bit manual for carry oning ratings. With the Handbook. we introduced the construct of the plan logic theoretical account and the ways in which using this construct has added value to our ain work. The plan logic theoretical account is defined as a image of how your organisation does its work – the theory and premises underlying the plan. A plan logic theoretical account links results ( both short- and long-run ) with plan activities/processes and the theoretical assumptions/principles of the plan. The W Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide. a comrade publication to the Evaluation. K. Handbook. focal points on the development and usage of the plan logic theoretical account. We have found the logic theoretical account and its procedures facilitate believing. planning. and communications about plan aims and existent achievements.

Through this usher. we hope to supply an orientation to the implicit in rules and linguistic communication of the plan logic theoretical account so it can be efficaciously used in plan planning. execution. and airing of consequences. The premiss behind this usher – and our position of the function of rating in programming – is simple: Good rating reflects clear thought and responsible plan direction. Over the old ages. our experience in utilizing logic theoretical accounts in enterprises such as the Kellogg Youth Initiative Partnerships. Devolution. ENLACE ( Engaging Latino Communities for Education ) . and the Native American Higher Education Initiative. to call merely a few. has provided ample grounds of the effectivity of these methods. Learning and utilizing tools like logic theoretical accounts can function to increase the practitioner’s voice in the spheres of planning. design. execution. analysis. and knowledge coevals. The procedure of developing the theoretical account is an chance to chart the class. It is a witting procedure that creates an expressed apprehension of the challenges in front. the resources available. and the timetable in which to hit the mark. In add-on. it helps maintain a balanced focal point on the large image every bit good as the constituent parts. In general. logic mold can greatly heighten the participatory function and utility of rating as a direction and larning tool.

Developing and utilizing logic theoretical accounts is an of import measure in constructing community capacity and beef uping community voice. The ability to place results and anticipate ways to mensurate them provides all plan participants with a clear map of the route in front. Map in manus. participants are more confident of their topographic point in the strategy of things. and therefore. more likely to actively prosecute and less likely to roll from the class – and when they do. to make so consciously and deliberately. Because it is peculiarly conformable to ocular word pictures. plan logic mold can be a strong tool in pass oning with diverse audiences – those who have changing universe positions and different degrees of experience with plan development and rating.

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Logic Model Development Guide

Introduction
The Logic Model Development Guide contains four chapters and two comprehensive appendices. Chapter 1 nowadayss a basic debut to the logic theoretical account as an action-oriented tool for plan planning and rating. It besides offers an array of sample logic theoretical accounts. Chapter 2 consists of exercisings and illustrations focused on the development of a simple plan logic theoretical account. Exercises include practical illustrations. checklists for reexamining content quality. and a templet for developing a logic theoretical account. Chapter 3 gives instructions on how to spread out a basic logic theoretical account to research and explicate the theoryof-change that describes the principle for your plan. A templet and checklist are provided. Chapter 4 offers two exercisings that afford the reader with an debut to how the basic logic patterning techniques introduced in the old chapters can be applied to inform believing about what should be included in an rating program. Templates and checklists are besides provided. The Resources Appendix provides logic theoretical account development resources – mentions and Web sites worth sing. The Forms Appendix includes clean templets to copy when developing your ain logic theoretical accounts.

Recognitions
This work builds on the experience of many at the W. K. Kellogg Foundation who pioneered the application of logic patterning to their enterprises. For illustration. logic theoretical accounts were foremost used with the Kellogg Youth Initiative Partnerships ( KYIP ) . In this application. the theoretical accounts were instrumental in assisting staff set up plan way. execution. an rating model. and results across three sites. In KYIP. logic mold was used to ease and steer the development of the specific premises and processes that finally led to the passage of the enterprise from a WKKF-operated plan to a community-owned plan. WKKF plan staff. including Tyrone Baines. Phyllis Meadows. Gerald Smith. Judy Watson Olson. Steve Peffers. Joyce Brown. and John Seita were instrumental in these attempts. Our work in developing the Logic Model Development Guide began at the petition of Kellogg Foundation Program Director Blas Santos who expressed a demand for user-friendly tools and procedures to back up the work of grantees in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Logic Model Development Guide represents a collaborative attempt. We peculiarly want to admit the attempts of the Kellogg Foundation’s former manager of rating. Ricardo Millett. and his squad of rating directors. including Astrid Hendricks-Smith and Mark Lelle. who have since left the organisation.

Their indefatigable work among staff and grantees continues to advance the usage of logic theoretical accounts to be after. design. and manage enterprises. Dale Hopkins and Karin Ladley were instrumental in conveying the stuff to print. We besides wish to admit the work of the Kellogg Foundation Vice Presidents of Programs Rick Foster. Gail McClure. Dan Moore. and Gloria Smith. along with Senior Vice President of Programs Anne Petersen. who have underscored the importance of rating. embraced the logic theoretical account attack. and adopted it as a valued plan support tool. Particular thanks are extended to Cynthia Phillips. a primary author and adviser throughout the development of this usher. and Work Volk Consultants. LLP. for arranging and editorial aid. Thankss. besides. to Beverly Parsons of In Sites ; Andrew Hahn and the pupils at the Florence Heller Graduate School for Advanced Studies in Social Welfare. Brandeis University ; Marc Osten. Summit Consulting Collaborative ; Sally Bond. The Program Evaluation Group ; Joel Meister and Eva Moya. University of Arizona ; Amy Coates-Madsen and staff at Maryland Association of Nonprofit Organizations ; and Gail Randall. Greater Worchester Community Foundation. –The Program Staff of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Page IV Logic Model Development Guide

Chapter 1
Introduction to Logic Models
Chapter One defines logic theoretical accounts and explains their usefulness to plan stakeholders. You will larn the relevancy of this state-of-the-art tool to plan planning. rating. and betterment. ffective plan rating does more than collect. analyze. and supply informations. It makes it possible for you – plan stakeholders – to garner and utilize information. to larn continually about and better plans that you operate in or fund. The W. K. Kellogg Foundation believes rating – particularly plan logic theoretical account attacks – is a acquisition and direction tool that can be used throughout a program’s life – no affair what your interest in the plan. Using rating and the logic theoretical account consequences in effectual scheduling and offers greater
larning chances. better certification of results. and shared cognition about what plants and why. The logic theoretical account is a good rating tool that facilitates effectual plan planning. execution. and rating.


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A plan logic theoretical account is a image of how your plan works – the theory and premises underlying the plan. …This theoretical account provides a route map of your plan. foregrounding how it is expected to work. what activities need to come before others. and how coveted results are achieved ( p. 35 ) . W. K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook ( 1998 )

The What and Why of the Logic Model
The WHAT: Logic Model Definition
Basically. a logic theoretical account is a systematic and ocular manner to show and portion your apprehension of the relationships among the resources you have to run your plan. the activities you plan. and the alterations or consequences you hope to accomplish.

Resources/ Inputs

Activities

End products

Results

Impact

1

2

3

4

5

Your Planned Work

Your Intended Consequences

Figure 1. The Basic Logic Model.

The most basic logic theoretical account is a image of how you believe your plan will work. It uses words and/or images to depict the sequence of activities thought to convey about alteration and how these activities are linked to the consequences the plan is expected to accomplish.

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Chapter 1

The Basic Logic Model constituents shown in Figure 1 above are defined below. These constituents illustrate the connexion between your planned work and your intended consequences. They are depicted numerically by stairss 1 through 5. YOUR PLANNED WORK describes what resources you think you need to implement your plan and what you intend to make. 1. Resources include the human. fiscal. organizational. and community resources a plan has available to direct toward making the work. Sometimes this constituent is referred to as Inputs. 2. Plan Activities are what the plan does with the resources. Activities are the procedures. tools. events. engineering. and actions that are an knowing portion of the plan execution. These intercessions are used to convey about the intended plan alterations or consequences. YOUR INTENDED RESULTS include all of the program’s desired consequences ( end products. results. and impact ) . 3. End products are the direct merchandises of plan activities and may include types. degrees and marks of services to be delivered by the plan. 4. Results are the specific alterations in plan participants’ behaviour. cognition. accomplishments. position and degree of working. Short-run results should be come-at-able within 1 to 3 old ages. while longer-term results should be accomplishable within a 4 to 6 twelvemonth timeframe.

The logical patterned advance from short-run to long-run results should be reflected in impact happening within approximately 7 to 10 old ages. 5. Impact is the cardinal intended or unintended alteration happening in organisations. communities or systems as a consequence of plan activities within 7 to 10 old ages. In the current theoretical account of WKKF grantmaking and rating. impact frequently occurs after the decision of undertaking support. The term logic theoretical account is often used interchangeably with the term plan theory in the rating field. Logic theoretical accounts can instead be referred to as theory because they describe how a plan plant and to what terminal ( definitions for each employed by taking rating experts are included in the Resources Appendix ) .

Most of the value in a logic theoretical account is in the procedure of making. validating. and modifying the theoretical account … The lucidity of thought that occurs from constructing the theoretical account is critical to the overall success of the plan ( p. 43 ) . W. K. Kellogg Foundation Handbook ( 1998 )

The What: How to “Read” a Logic Model
When “read” from left to compensate. logic theoretical accounts describe plan rudimentss over clip from be aftering through consequences. Reading a logic theoretical account means following the concatenation of concluding or “If…then…” statements which connect the program’s parts. The figure below shows how the basic logic theoretical account is read.

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Sample Factors act uponing the trip: • Family members’ school and work agendas • The vacations • Winter conditions • Frequent Flier handiness Sample Activities: • Creating/checking household agendas • Gathering vacation
flight and FF information • Getting airdrome transit • Notifying Iowa relations

Certain resources are needed to run your plan
Resources/ Inputs 1

If you have entree to them. so you can utilize them to carry through your planned activities Activities

If you accomplish your planned activities. so you will hopefully present the sum of merchandise and/or service that you intended End products

If you accomplish your planned activities to the extent you intended. so your participants will profit in certain ways Outcomes

If these benefits to participants are achieved. so certain alterations in organisations. communities. or systems might be expected to happen Impact

2

3

4

5

Your Planned Work
Figure 2. How to Read a Logic Model.

Your Intended Consequences

The WHY: Logic Model Purpose and Practical Application
The intent of a logic theoretical account is to supply stakeholders with a route map depicting the sequence of related events linking the demand for the planned plan with the program’s desired consequences. Maping a proposed
plan helps you visualise and understand how human and fiscal investings can lend to accomplishing your intended plan ends and can take to plan betterments. A logic theoretical account brings plan constructs and dreams to life. It lets stakeholders try an thought on for size and use theories to a theoretical account or image of how the plan would work. The undermentioned illustration shows how the logic theoretical account attack plants. ( If you are familiar with logic theoretical accounts. you may wish to jump in front to the subdivision entitled “Why Use A Logic Model? ” ) An Example: We are suggesting an cheap household trip from Charleston. South Carolina. to Des Moines. Iowa. to see relations during December school vacations. The seasonal trip we dream of taking from Charleston to Des Moines is the “program. ” Basic premises about our trip “program” are: • We want to see relations between 12/10/00 and 1/5/01 while the kids are out of school. • We will wing from South Carolina to Iowa because it takes less clip than driving and because frequent flyer ( FF ) stat mis are available. • Using frequent flyer stat mis will cut down travel costs. We have to find the factors act uponing our trip. including necessary resources. such as. the figure of household members. scheduled holiday clip. the figure of frequent flyer stat mis we have. unit of ammunition trip air reserves for each household member. and transit to and from our place to the airdrome. The activities necessary to do this happen are the creative activity of our ain household vacation agenda. procuring our Iowa relative’s agenda. earning air line information and reserves and planning for transit to and from the airdrome.

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Chapter 1

In this illustration. the consequences of our activities – or end products – are largely information. such as household agendas. flight agendas. and cost information based on the clip frame of the trip. This information helps place results or immediate ends. For case. if we make reserves every bit shortly as possible. we are able to happen flights with available frequent flier slots and likely hold more options for flights that fit within the clip frame. Knowing this. our results better – reserves made good in progress consequence in flight agendas and air hose costs that suit our timeline and travel budget. Longer-term impact of our trip is non an issue here. but might be projected as continued good household relationships in 2010. You can’t make “good” rating if you have a ailing planned plan.

Beverly Anderson Parsons ( 1999 ) Using a simple logic theoretical account as a trip-planning tool produced touchable benefits. It helped us garner information to act upon our determinations about resources and allowed us to run into our stated ends. Using this procedure systematically throughout our trip planning places us for success by puting out the best class of action and giving us benchmarks for mensurating advancement – when we touch down in Charlotte and alteration planes for Cincinnati. we know we’re on class for Des Moines. Typical logic theoretical accounts use table and flow chart formats like those presented here to catalogue plan factors. activities. and consequences and to exemplify a program’s dimensions. Most use text and arrows or a in writing representation of plan thoughts. This is what our trip planning “program” could look like in logic theoretical account format. Your Planned Work Trip Planning Your Intended Results Trip Results

Resources/ Inputs

Activities

End products

Results

Impact

• Holiday flight agendas • Family agendas • Frequent circular vacation options • Holiday weather 1

• Create household agenda • Get holiday flight info • Get tickets • Arrange land conveyance 2

• Tickets for all household members • Frequent circular stat mis used • Money saved

• Family members enjoy holiday

• Continued good household dealingss

3

4

5

It was easy to form travel programs in a flow chart. but we could besides take to form and expose our thought in other ways. A logic theoretical account does non hold to be additive. It may look as a simple image or concept map to depict more complex plan constructs. Settling on a individual image of a plan is sometimes the most hard measure for plan stakeholders.

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Why Use a Logic Model?
If plan contrivers don’t have any hypotheses steering them. their possible for larning from the enterprise is low. and the plan is likely in problem ( p. 1 ) . Everything You Wanted to Know About Logic Models but Were Afraid to Ask. Connie Schmitz and Beverly Anderson Parsons ( 1999 ) As you can see from the travel program illustration. logic theoretical accounts are utile tools in many ways. Because they are pictural in nature. they require systematic thought and planning to better describe plans. The ocular representation of the maestro program in a logic theoretical account is flexible. points out countries of strength and/or failing. and allows stakeholders to run through many possible scenarios to happen the best. In a logic theoretical account. you can set attacks and alteration classs as plan programs are developed. Ongoing appraisal. reappraisal. and corrections can bring forth better plan design and a system to strategically supervise. manage. and study plan results throughout development and execution. Effective rating and plan success rely on the basicss of clear stakeholder premises and outlooks about how and why a plan will work out a peculiar job. bring forth new possibilities. and do the most of valuable assets. The logic theoretical account attack helps make shared apprehension of and concentrate on plan ends and methodological analysis. associating activities to projected results.

Logic Models Better Position Programs For Success
Many rating experts agree that usage of the logic theoretical account is an effectual manner to guarantee plan success. Using a logic theoretical account throughout your plan helps form and systematise plan planning. direction. and rating maps. 1. In Program Design and Planning. a logic theoretical account serves as a planning tool to develop plan scheme and heighten your ability to clearly explicate and exemplify plan constructs and attack for cardinal stakeholders. including funders. The curse of rating is a ailing designed plan. Ricardo Millett. Director. WKKF Evaluation Unit Logic theoretical accounts can assist craft construction and organisation for plan design and construct in self-evaluation based on shared apprehension of what is to take topographic point. During the planning stage. developing a logic theoretical account requires stakeholders to analyze best pattern research and practician experience in visible radiation of the schemes and activities selected to accomplish consequences. 2. In Program Implementation. a logic theoretical account forms the nucleus for a focussed direction program that helps you place and roll up the informations needed to supervise and better scheduling. Using the logic theoretical account during plan execution and direction requires you to concentrate energies on accomplishing and documenting consequences. Logic theoretical accounts help you to see and prioritise the plan aspects most critical for tracking and describing and do accommodations as necessary. 3. For Program Evaluation and Strategic Reporting. a logic theoretical account presents plan information and advancement toward ends in ways that inform. advocator for a peculiar plan attack. and teach plan stakeholders.

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Chapter 1

We all know the importance of describing consequences to funders and to community stakeholders likewise. Communication is a cardinal constituent of a program’s success and sustainability. Logic theoretical accounts can assist strategic selling attempts in three primary ways: • Describing plans in linguistic communication clear and specific plenty to be understood and evaluated. • Concentrating attending and resources on precedence plan operations and cardinal consequences for the intents of acquisition and plan betterment. • Developing targeted communicating and selling schemes. There are many ways to carry on ratings. and professional judges tend to hold that there is no “one best way” to make any rating. Alternatively. good rating requires carefully believing through the inquiries that need to be answered. the type of plan being evaluated. and the ways in which the information generated will be used. Good rating. in our position. should supply utile information about plan operation that can lend to plan betterment. W. K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Unit The Table below describes the relationship between a successful plan and the benefits derived from the usage of logic theoretical accounts. Program Elementss

Planing and Design

Standards for Program Success1
Plan ends and aims. and of import side effects are good defined in front of clip. Program ends and aims are both plausible and possible.

Benefits of Program Logic Models2
Discoveries “gaps” in the theory or logic of a plan and work to decide them.

Physiques a shared apprehension of what the plan is all approximately and how the parts work together. Focuss attending of direction on the most of import connexions between action and consequences. Provides a manner to affect and prosecute stakeholders in the design. procedures. and usage of rating.

Program Implementation and Management Evaluation. Communication. and Marketing

Relevant. believable. and utile public presentation informations can be obtained.

The intended users of the rating consequences have agreed on how they will utilize the information.

How Logic Models Better Position Programs Toward Success.

Logic Models Strengthen the Case for Program Investment
Clear thoughts about what you plan to make and why – every bit good as an organized attack to capturing. documenting. and circulating plan consequences – enhance the instance for investing in your plan. 1

Wholey. J. S. . Hatry. H. P. . & A ; Newcomer. K. E. ( Eds. ) . ( 1994 ) . Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Barley. Z. . Phillips. C. . & A ; Jenness. M. ( 1998 ) . Decoding Program Logic Models. Workshop presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Evaluation Association. Chicago. IL. November. 1998.

2

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Developing a Program Logic Model Requires a Simple Image and a Straightforward Approach A image IS worth a 1000 words. The point of developing a logic theoretical account is to come up with a comparatively simple image that reflects how and why your plan will work. Making this as a group brings the power of consensus and group scrutiny of values and beliefs about alteration procedures and plan consequences.

LOGIC MODEL IF…THEN Assumptions: • Certain resources are needed to run your plan. • If you have entree to them. so you can utilize them to
carry through your planned activities. • If you accomplish your planned activities. so. you will. it is hoped. present the sum of merchandise and/or service that you intended. • If you accomplish your planned activities to the extent intended. so your participants will profit in specific ways. • If these benefits to participants are achieved. so certain alterations in organisations. communities. or systems might happen under specified conditions.

Logic Models Reflect Group Process and Shared Understanding
Frequently. a professional judge is charged with developing a logic theoretical account for plan practicians. But a logic theoretical account developed by all stakeholders – plan staff. participants. and judges – produces a more utile tool and refines plan constructs and programs in the procedure. We recommend that a logic theoretical account be developed collaboratively in an inclusive. collegial procedure that engages every bit many cardinal stakeholders as possible. This usher provides a bit-by-bit procedure to help plan contrivers.

Like Programs. Logic Models Can Change Over Time
As a plan grows and develops. so does its logic theoretical account. A plan logic theoretical account is simply a snapshot of a plan at one point in clip ; it is non the plan with its existent flow of events and results. A logic theoretical account is a work in advancement. a working bill of exchange that can be refined as the plan develops.

Simple Logic Model Basics
Making a logic theoretical account: What they look like and what needs to be included Logic theoretical accounts come in as many sizes and forms as the plans they represent. A simple theoretical account focal points on project-level consequences and explains five basic plan constituents. The elements outlined below are typical of the theoretical account promoted by United Way of America to back up an outcomes-based attack to plan planning and rating.

Developing and Reading a Basic Logic Model
Read from left to compensate. logic theoretical accounts describe plan rudimentss over clip. get downing with best pattern information or cognition about “what works” from successful plan practicians and other sure governments. Reading
a logic theoretical account means following the concatenation of concluding or “If…then…” statements which connect the program’s parts. The grey box in the left column defines the premises stated in “If…then…” footings.

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Chapter 1

Constructing a Logic Model by Basic Program Components
As you conceptualize your plan. get down by depicting your basic premises and so add the undermentioned plan constituents in the order that they should happen. 1. Factors are resources and/or barriers. which potentially enable or limit plan effectivity. Enabling protective factors or resources may include support. bing organisations. possible join forcesing spouses. bing organisational or interpersonal webs. staff and voluntaries. clip. installations. equipment. and supplies. Restricting hazard factors or barriers might include such things as attitudes. deficiency of resources. policies. Torahs. ordinances. and geographics. 2. Activities are the procedures. techniques. tools. events. engineering. and actions of the planned plan. These may include merchandises – promotional stuffs and educational course of study ; services – instruction and preparation. guidance. or wellness showing ; and substructure – construction. relationships. and capacity used to convey about the coveted consequences. 3. End products are the direct consequences of plan activities. They are normally described in footings of the size and/or range of the services and merchandises delivered or produced by the plan. They indicate if a plan was delivered to the intended audiences at the intended “dose. ” A plan end product. for illustration. might be the figure of categories taught. meetings held. or stuffs produced and distributed ; plan engagement rates and human ecology ; or hours of each type of service provided. 4. Results are specific alterations in attitudes. behaviours. cognition. accomplishments. position. or degree of working expected to ensue from plan activities and which are most frequently expressed at an single degree. 5. Impacts are organisational. community. and/or system degree alterations expected to ensue from plan activities. which might include improved conditions. increased capacity. and/or alterations in the policy sphere.

Thinking about a plan in logic theoretical account footings prompts the lucidity and specificity required for success. and frequently demanded by funders and your community. Using a simple logic theoretical account green goodss ( 1 ) an stock list of what you have and what you need to run your plan ; ( 2 ) a strong instance for how and why your plan will bring forth your coveted consequences ; and ( 3 ) a method for plan direction and appraisal.

Other Logic Model Examples
In pattern. most logic theoretical accounts are more complex and autumn into one of three classs: the theory attack theoretical account ( conceptual ) . outcome attack theoretical account. or activities approach theoretical account ( applied ) – or a blend of several types. It is non unusual for a plan to utilize all three types of logic theoretical accounts for different intents. No one theoretical account fits all demands. so you will

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Logic Model Development Guide

demand to make up one’s mind precisely what you want to accomplish with your logic theoretical account – and where you are in the life of your plan – before make up one’s minding on which theoretical account to utilize.

Types of Logic Models: Emphasis and Strengths
Intended Results Beginnings Grant Proposal

Should lend to the consequences you expect based on this theory of alteration what we have done so far

Planing & A ; Design

what we hope to make

If your premises about the factors that influence your issues hold true…

theory type Reports & A ; Other Media Evaluation. Communication. Marketing Program Logic Model vitamin E

Execution

how we will make what we say we will make
Planned Work Then. the activities you plan to make which construct on these assumptions…

Types of Logic Models: Emphasis and Strengths A plan is a theory and an rating is its trial. In order to form the rating to supply a responsible trial. the judge needs to understand the theoretical premises on which the plan is based ( p. 55 ) . Carol Weiss ( 1998 )

Descriptions of Three Approaches to Logic Models: Which Fits Your Program? 1. Theory Approach Models stress the theory of alteration that has influenced the design and program for the plan. These logic theoretical accounts provide rich account of the grounds for get downing to research an thought for a given plan. Sometimes they have extra parts that specify the job or issue addressed by the plan. depict the grounds for choosing certain types of solution schemes. connect proved schemes to possible activities. and other premises the contrivers hold that influence effectivity. These theoretical accounts illustrate how and why you think your plan will work. They are built from the “big picture” sorts of ideas and thoughts that went into gestating your plan. They are coming to be most frequently used to do the instance in grant proposals. Models depicting the beginnings of a plan in item are most utile during plan planning and design.

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Logic Model Development Guide

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The intent of utilizing plan logic theoretical accounts in WKKF grantmaking is to assist internal and external stakeholders understand how the Foundation’s investing will lend to accomplishing the intended ends. This apprehension should assist these assorted stakeholders make informed determinations about plan precedences. support precedences. aid to grantees. rating of programming impact. and selling. communicating. and selling schemes. W. K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook ( 1998 )

2. Outcomes Approach Models focal point on the early facets of plan planning and effort to link the resources and/or activities with the coveted consequences in a feasible plan. These theoretical accounts frequently subdivide results and impact over clip to depict short-run ( 1 to 3 old ages ) . long-run ( 4 to 6 old ages ) . and impact ( 7 to 10 old ages ) that may ensue from a given set of activities. Although these theoretical accounts are developed with a theory of alteration in head. this facet is non normally emphasized explicitly. Models that outline the attack and outlooks behind a program’s intended consequences are most
utile in planing effectual rating and coverage schemes. 3. Activities Approach Models pay the most attending to the particulars of the execution procedure. A logic theoretical account of this type links the assorted planned activities together in a mode that maps the procedure of plan execution. These theoretical accounts describe what a plan intends to make and as such are most utile for the intents of plan monitoring and direction. This type provides the elaborate stairss you think you will necessitate to follow to implement your plan. It shows what you will really make in your community if your proposal is funded. Models that emphasize a program’s planned work are most frequently used to inform direction planning activities.

Working Through Theory Approach Logic Models Emphasizes Assumptions A theory attack logic theoretical account links theoretical thoughts together to explicate implicit in plan premises. The focal point here is on the job or issue and the grounds for suggesting the solution suggested in your program’s attack. Remember. the theory logic theoretical account is wide and about “big thoughts. ” non about specific plan “nuts and bolts. ” Noted judge and plan theoretician Carol Weiss ( 1998 ) explains that for plan planning. monitoring. and rating. it is of import to cognize non merely what the plan expects to accomplish but besides how. We must understand the rules on which a plan is based. a impression non included in rating until late. Discussions about the whethers. hows. and wherefore of plan success require believable grounds and attending to the waies by which results and impacts are produced. The theory logic theoretical account is suited for usage by funders and grantees. A instance illustration of its usage is provided below. In this instance. the theoretical account describes a WKKF bunch initiative’s ( Comprehensive Community Health Models of Michigan ) programming scheme or its theory of alteration. Notice that this theoretical account places accent on “Your Beginnings” by including the premises identified by plan contrivers as the rules behind the design of the enterprise.

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Premises

Input signals

Activities

End products

Outcomes Community-wide Coverage and Access

Impact

Health is a community issue and communities will organize partnerships to decide wellness attention jobs. Commnities can act upon and determine public and market policy at the local. province. and national degrees. External agents. working in partnership with communities. can function as accelerators for alteration.

Consumers Active Engagement in the Reform Process More Effective Distribution of Community Health Care Resources

Suppliers

Comprehensive. Integrated Health Care Delivery System

Improved Health Status

Payers Inclusive Community DecisionMaking Administrative Processes for Health Data. Policy. and Advocacy Community Health Assessment Increased Health Care System Efficiency

These theoretical accounts help construct a common apprehension between directors and evaluators… . Such understanding is a requirement for rating work that is likely to be utile to direction. [ These theoretical accounts ] expose the cardinal events ( inputs. activities. results ) that could be monitored and the false causal linkages that could be tested in ratings of the plan. Joseph
S. Wholey. Harry P. Hatry. and K. E. Newcomer ( 1994 )

Switching grosss and inducements to primary attention and bar will better wellness position. Information on wellness position and systems is required for informed determination devising.

Staff

External Technical Aid

Community-based Health Information Systems

Your Beginnings

Your Planned Work

Your Intended Consequences

Example of a Theory Logic theoretical account ( Adapted from WKKF’s Comprehensive Community Health Models of Michigan ) .

Working with Outcome Approach Models Highlights Activities and Program Implementation Outcome attack logic theoretical accounts display the interrelatednesss between specific plan activities and their results. On the following page is an illustration drawn from the Calhoun County Health Improvement Program. funded under the Comprehensive Community Health Models of Michigan enterprise. This additive. columnar theoretical account emphasizes the causal linkages thought to be among plan constituents. The pointers show which sets of activities plan developers believed would lend to what outcomes. These statements serve as logical averments about the sensed relationship among plan operations and desired consequences and are the trademark of the logic theoretical account procedure. Notice that this theoretical account emphasizes “Your Intended Results” in the greatest comparative item and anticipates achievement outside the clip allotted for the enterprise.

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Chapter 1

Inputs Consumers. suppliers. and remunerators to take part in administration procedures.

Activities Activities that encourage consumers. suppliers. and remunerators to seek support. and achieve common ends. Activities that addition consumer consciousness and entree to wellness publicity. disease bar. and primary attention services. Activities that addition linkages among medical. wellness. and human service systems. Activities that lead to the development of a community entree and coverage program. Activities that lead to the development of a community wellness information web. Activities that lead to the development of a community wellness appraisal and coverage plan.

Outputs Consumers. suppliers. and remunerators functioning on the CCHIP Governing Board seek. support. and achieve common ends.

Outcomes CCHIP Governing Board is deemed inclusive and accountable by the community stakeholders.

Impact

Increased community entree and engagement in wellness publicity. disease bar. and primary attention services. Linkages are forged among medical. wellness. and human service systems. Third-party administered contract for community-wide coverage is in topographic point.

Increased Numberss of community members utilize the wellness publicity. disease bar. and primary attention service provided

Sufficient staff with expertness and leading accomplishments to implement the
plan at the local degree.

Improved access/coverage for the insured. under- . and non-insured in the community.

Improved Health Status

Fiber-optic information web is in topographic point ( CHIN ) .

Community members utilize the CHIN for information aggregation. storage. analysis. and exchange.

Sufficient external proficient aid to back up staff in plan execution

Community wellness appraisal and coverage plan is in topographic point.

Information provided by the Health Report Card is used to do community wellness determinations.

Your Planned Work

Your Intended Consequences

Example of an Outcome Approach theoretical account ( illustration drawn from the Calhoun County Health Improvement Program. funded under the Comprehensive Community Health Models of Michigan enterprise ) .

Not merely will a logic theoretical account clear up each component of your plan. it will enable you to react to the inquiry: “To what do I desire to be held accountable? ” . The Evaluation Forum ( 1999 )

Using the Activities Approach Models to Track Outcomes
The activities approach logic theoretical account besides connects plan resources and activities to coveted consequences but does so in really great item. Each result
is normally dealt with individually by the activities and events that must take topographic point to maintain the plan on path. The theoretical account stressing “Your Planned Work” can be used as a work program or direction tool for plan constituents and in concurrence with other theoretical accounts. Notice how it points out what plan activities need to be monitored and what sort of measurings might bespeak advancement toward consequences. Below is one theoretical account depicting the connexions between undertaking undertakings and outcome accomplishment for the community coverage strand from the result attack illustration provided earlier.

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Logic Model Development Guide

Insurance market issues are identified and documented.

Insurance market issues are prioritized based on potency for successful reform.

Deliverable–6 The Purchasing Alliance will place insurance market issues and schemes to reform those identified issues will be developed and implemented.

High precedence issues are identified and examined.

Schemes to reform the high precedence issues identified have been developed.

Change agents with sufficient capacity and resources to successfully put to death insurance market reform are identified.

Change agents contracted to implement insurance market reform ( lower limit of 2 ) .

Equitable entree to community-wide coverage.

Activities to increase beneficiary registration and supplier engagement in Medicaid and other 3rd party sponsored insurance and reimbursment programs
( 2P1 )

% lessening of people uninsured ( 201 ) . % lessening of new Medicaid eligible consumers accomplishing coverage before in the infirmary ( 203 ) . % in Medicaid take parting suppliers. utilizing $ 1000 threshold degree ( 204 ) .

Milestone Activities Your Planned Work

Outputs Your Intended Consequences

Results

Adapted from the Calhoun County Health Improvement Program. one site of WKKF’s Comprehensive Community Health Models of Michigan enterprise

There Is No Best Logic Model
Try several on for size. Choose the theoretical account that fits your plan best and provides the information you need in the format that is most helpful. Like anything else. it takes pattern to utilize logic theoretical accounts as effectual plan tools. We learn through test and mistake to happen what works best for what plan. Don’t hesitate to experiment with plan logic theoretical account design to find what works best for your plan. And don’t be concerned if your theoretical account doesn’t expression like one of the instance examples. The following show how the logic theoretical account forms gather information that can be used throughout your program’s life – from specifying the theory on which your plan remainders to measuring plan impact.

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Chapter 1

How to utilize a Logic Model Through the Life of Your Program:
1. Plan Planning
Schemes

CLARIFYING PROGRAM Theory:
6

5

Premises

Influential Factors

Problem or Issue

4

1

Desired Results ( outputs. results. and impact )

3

Community Needs/Assets

2

For more item. see the Program Planning Template on p. 57.

2. Program Execution
Resource
In order to carry through our set of activities we will necessitate the followers:

1. PROBLEM OR ISSUE STATEMENT: Describe the job ( s ) your plan is trying to work out or the issue ( s ) your plan will turn to. 2. COMMUNITY NEEDS/ASSETS: Stipulate the demands and/or assets of your community that led your organisation to plan a plan that addresses the job. 3. Desire
RESULTS ( OUTPUTS. OUTCOMES AND IMPACTS ) : Identify desired consequences. or vision of the hereafter. by depicting what you expect to accomplish near- and long-run. 4. Influential Factor: List the factors you believe will act upon alteration in your community. 5. Scheme: List general successful schemes or “best practices” that have helped communities like yours achieve the sorts of consequences your plan promises. 6. Premise: State the premises behind how and why the alteration schemes will work in your community.

Activities
In order to turn to our job or plus we will carry through the undermentioned activities:

OUTPUTS SHORT
We expect that one time accomplished these activities will bring forth the undermentioned grounds or service bringing:

SHORT & A ; LONG-TERM OUTCOMES
We expect that if accomplished these activities will take to the undermentioned alterations in 1-3 so 4-6 old ages:

Impact
We expect that if accomplished these activities will take to the undermentioned alterations in 7-10 old ages:

Show YOUR PROGRAM’S Advancement:
1. End product: For each plan activity. place what outputs ( service delivery/implementation marks ) you aim to bring forth. 2. Result: Identify the short-run and long-run results you expect to accomplish for each activity. 3. Impact: Describe the impact you anticipate in your community in 7 to 10 old ages with each activity as a consequence of your plan. 4. Activity: Describe each of the activities you plan to carry on in your plan. 5. Resource: Describe the resources or influential factors available to back up your plan activities.

For more item. see the Program Implementation Template on p. 54.

3. Program Evaluation
Evaluation Focus Area Audience Question Use

PROGRAM EVALUATION QUESTIONS AND INDICATORS:
For more item. see the Evaluation Planning Template on p. 59. Focus Area Question Indicators Technical Assistance Needed
“

For more item. see the Indicators Development Template on p. 61.

1. FOCUS AREA: From your plan theory logic theoretical account. name the constituents of the most of import facets of your plan. 2. Audience: Identify the key audiences for each focal point country. Who has an involvement in your plan? 3. Question: For each focal point country and audience. name the inquiries they may hold about your plan. 4. Information Use: For each audience and inquiry you have identified. place the ways you will utilize the rating information. 5. Index: Describe what information could be collected that would bespeak the position of your plan and its participants for each inquiry. 6. Technical Aid: Indicate the extent to which your organisation has the rating and information direction expertness to roll up and analyse the information that relates to this index.

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Chapter 2
Developing a Basic Logic Model For Your Plan
Pulling a image of how your plan will accomplish consequences hether you are a grantseeker developing a proposal for start-up financess or a grantee with a plan already in operation. developing a logic theoretical account can beef up your plan. Logic theoretical accounts help place the factors that will impact your plan and enable you to expect the informations and resources you will necessitate to accomplish success. As you engage in the procedure of making your plan logic
theoretical account. your organisation will consistently turn to these of import plan planning and rating issues: • Cataloguing of the resources and actions you believe you will necessitate to make intended consequences. • Documentation of connexions among your available resources. planned activities and the consequences you expect to accomplish. • Description of the consequences you are taking for in footings of particular. mensurable. action-oriented. realistic and timed results. The exercisings in this chapter gather the natural stuff you need to pull a basic logic theoretical account that illustrates how and why your plan will work and what it will carry through. You can profit from making a logic theoretical account at any point in the life of any plan. The logic theoretical account development procedure helps people inside and outside your organisation understand and better the intent and procedure of your work. Chapter 2 is organized into two subdivisions – Program Implementation. and Program Results. The best formula for plan success is to finish both exercisings. ( Life-size Masterss of each exercising and the checklists are provided in the Forms Appendix at the dorsum of the usher for you to run off and utilize with stakeholder groups as you design your program. ) Exercise 1: Plan Consequences. In a series of three stairss. you describe the consequences you plan to accomplish with your plan. Exercise 2: Plan Resources and Activities by taking you through three stairss that connect the program’s resources to the existent activities you plan to make. The Mytown Example Throughout Exercises 1 and 2 we’ll follow an illustration plan to see how the logic theoretical account stairss can be applied. In our illustration. the folks in Mytown. USA. are endeavoring to run into the demands of turning Numberss of uninsured occupants who are turning to Memorial Hospital’s Emergency Room for attention. Because that attention is expensive and non the best manner to offer attention. the community is working to make a free clinic. Throughout the chapters. Mytown’s plan information will be dropped into logic theoretical account templets for Program Planning. Implementation. and Evaluation.


Tungsten

Over the past few old ages. I have markedly changed my attack to logic mold. I have become positive that it makes a considerable difference if you do the results before be aftering the activities. I decidedly advocate making the results foremost! I find that people come up with much more
effectual activities when they do. Use the slogan. “plan backward. implement frontward. ” Beverly Anderson Parsons. WKKF Cluster Evaluator

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Chapter 2

Novice logic modellers may desire to hold transcripts of the Basic Logic Model Template in forepart of them and follow along. Those readers with more experience and acquaintance may desire to research the text and so jump in front to the completed Basic Logic Model for the Mytown Example on page 34.

Showing Progress Toward Change
The Importance of Documenting Progress
Harmonizing to many funders. grant applications often lack solid descriptions of how plans will show their effectivity. Some grantees think activities are ends unto themselves. They report the Numberss of participants they reach or the Numberss of preparation Sessionss held as though they were consequences. Conducting an activity is non the same as accomplishing consequences from the achievement of that activity. For illustration. being seen by a physician is different from cut downing the figure of uninsured exigency room visits. Tracking informations like meetings held or patients enrolled does supervise your program’s execution and public presentation. but those informations are outputs ( activity informations ) . non results ( which refer to the consequences you expect to accomplish in future old ages ) . “Do the results first” is sage advice. Most logic theoretical accounts lack specific short- and longterm results that predict what will be achieved several old ages down the route. Stipulating plan mileposts as you design the plan physiques in ways to garner the information required and allows you to sporadically measure the program’s advancement toward the ends you identify. For that ground. Exercise 1 isn’t filled out from left to compensate.

This exercising asks you to “do the results foremost. ” We will concentrate our attending foremost on what we have called “your intended consequences. ” As you implement your plan. outcome steps heighten plan success by measuring your advancement from the beginning and all along the manner. That makes it possible to detect jobs early on. The elements ( Outputs. Outcomes. and Impact ) that consist your intended consequences give you an lineation of what is most of import to supervise and estimate to find the effectivity of your plan. You can rectify and revise based on your reading of the collected information.

Exercise 1 – Describing Results
Describe the consequences you desire – Outputs. Outcomes and Impact If you were running the Mytown Free Clinic. how would you demo that your coveted result ( a decrease in uninsured exigency attention ) didn’t consequence from a mass hegira of uninsured occupants from Mytown. USA. or a sudden addition in figure of employees offered wellness insurance coverage by local concerns?

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How will you show that your plan contributed to the alteration you intend? A well-crafted logic theoretical account can asseverate it is sensible to claim that your plan made a substantial part to your intended alteration. When plans operate in existent communities where influences and forces are beyond your control. rating is by and large more about documenting a program’s part than about turn outing something. Communitybased enterprises operate in complex environments where the scientific certainty of “proof ” is rarely come-at-able. This is where logic theoretical accounts can be particularly helpful. Instruction manual: Exercise 1 will utilize the Basic Logic Model Development Template. In peculiar. you will utilize the information presented in the grey text boxes that follow about the Mytown illustration plan to find what consequences are intended for this plan. Example information about results. impacts. and end products are provided. You will make full in the clean Basic Logic Model Development Template to exemplify foremost the results and impacts sought and so the end products. You can so look at the completed templet on page 25 to see compare your reading with that produced by the Mytown folks.

Exercise 1 uses the Basic Logic Model Development Template
Resources Activities Outputs Short- & A ; LongTerm Outcomes
We expect that if completed or ongoing these activities will take to the undermentioned alterations in 1–3 so 4–6 old ages:

Impact

In order to carry through our set of activities we will necessitate the followers:

In order to turn to our job or plus we will carry on the undermentioned activities:

We expect that one time completed or under manner these activities will bring forth the undermentioned grounds of service bringing:

We expect that if completed these activities will take to the undermentioned alterations in 7–10 old ages:

Results and Impacts should be SMART: • Specific • Measurable • Action-oriented • Realistic • Timed

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Chapter 2

Some logic theoretical accounts figure the lists within a column to help treatment. Some tabular logic theoretical accounts use rows to order and demo the relationships among constituents. Some logic theoretical accounts. like the result and activity illustrations provided in Chapter One. utilize a box and arrow format to exemplify the “causal linkages” showing how your resources. activities. end products. results. and impact connect to organize ironss. These word pictures add to the lucidity of your logic model/evaluation program. However. for the most basic of
logic theoretical accounts. the stock list attack we illustrate is sufficient to capture your believing about how a plan will work. The other techniques will better its public-service corporation. but the most of import undertaking is to first acquire the constituent parts categorized and described. Once you have completed the stock list tabular array for this and Exercise 2 feel free to experiment with placing the relationships among the points across columns. Short-run results are consequences you expect to accomplish one to three old ages after a plan activity is under manner. Short-run results are specific alterations in things like attitudes. behaviours. cognition. accomplishments. position. or degree of working expected to ensue from plan activities. These normally are expressed at an single degree among plan participants. Examples: Signed Memorandum of Agreement from the local proficient college donating clinic infinite. alteration in participants’ attitudes about the demand for a medical place. addition in Numberss of scheduled one-year physicals. increased patient follow-up visits. alteration in staff’s consciousness of patient programming challenges. increased appropriate referrals from ER’s.

Insert Mytown’s short-run results in the Short- and Long-Term Outcomes Column of the Basic Logic Model Development Template.

Long-run results are consequences you expect to accomplish in four to six old ages. Long-run results are besides specific alterations in things like attitudes. behaviours. cognition. accomplishments. position. or degree of working expected to ensue from plan activities. These normally build on the advancement expected by the short-run results. Examples: The clinic serves as a medical place for 500 uninsured patients. The clinic has sustained support beginnings: patient co-payments ( $ 10/visit ) supply 20 % of the Clinic’s operating costs. United Way provides 20 % . Memorial Hospital donates 20 % . the Medical Society contributes 20 % and an gift established at the Community Foundation provides the concluding 20 % . An one-year golf tourney organized by the Kiwanis Club financess particular clinic undertakings. There has been a 25 % decrease in uninsured exigency attention since Mytown Free Clinic opened five old ages ago. In the Clinic’s 5th twelvemonth there is a 15 % decrease in uninsured ER visits. Seventy-five voluntary decision makers and 300 voluntary medical professionals on a regular basis serve at the clinic each twelvemonth. Five companies donate
all necessary medical supplies. Allow financess buy the computing machines and package needed to make electronic patient records. For five old ages patient satisfaction evaluations have been 90 % .

Insert Mytown’s long-run results in the Short- and Long-Term Outcomes column of the Basic Logic Model Development Template.

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Impact refers to the consequences expected seven to ten old ages after an activity is under manner – the future societal alteration your plan is working to make. Impacts are the sorts of organisational. community. or system degree alterations expected to ensue from plan activities and which might include improved conditions. increased capacity. and/or alterations in the policy sphere. Example: Specific decrease in inappropriate exigency room usage. increased contributions of clinic supplies to run into identified demands. a stable supply of medical voluntaries. an endowment back uping 35 % of the clinic’s runing financess. 900 patients served/year.

Insert Mytown’s impacts in the Impact Column of the Basic Logic Model Development Template.

End products are informations about activities. They are the direct consequences of plan activities. They are normally described in footings of size and range of the services or merchandises delivered or produced by the plan. They indicate whether or non a plan was delivered to the intended audiences at the intended “dose. ” A plan end product. for illustration. might include the figure of categories taught. meetings held. stuffs distributed. plan engagement rates. or entire service bringing hours. Examples: Number of patients referred to the Free Clinic from Memorial ER/year. the figure of patients screened/year. the figure of qualified patients enrolled in the Free Clinic/year. the mean figure of patient visits/day. the entire figure of patient visits/year. the figure and fortes of medical voluntaries. the
figure of voluntary decision makers trained. the figure and locations of clinic postings distributed. the figure of possible patients naming for information/ month.

Insert Mytown’s outputs in the Outputs Column of the Basic Logic Model Development Template.

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Chapter 2

Exercise 1 Checklist:
Review what you have created utilizing the checklist below to measure the quality of your bill of exchange. Progress Toward Results Quality Criteria 1. 2. 3. A assortment of audiences are taken into consideration when stipulating believable end products. results. and impacts. Target participants and/or spouses are described and quantified as end products ( e. g. 100 instructors from 5 rural high schools ) . Events. merchandises. or services listed are described as end products in footings of a intervention or dosage ( e. g. 30 husbandmans will take part in at least 3 Sessionss of plan. or course of study will be distributed to at least 12 bureaus ) . The strength of the intercession or intervention is appropriate for the type of participant targeted ( e. g. higher-risk participants warrant higher strengths ) . The continuance of the intercession or intervention is appropriate for the type of participant targeted ( e. g. higher-risk participants warrant longer continuance ) . Outcomes reflect sensible. progressive stairss that participants can do toward longer-term consequences. Outcomes address consciousness. attitudes. perceptual experiences. cognition. accomplishments. and/ or behaviour of participants. Results are within the range of the program’s control or domain of sensible influence. It seems just or sensible to keep the plan accountable for the results specified. The results are specific. mensurable. action-oriented. realistic. and timed. The results are written as alteration statements ( e. g. things addition. lessening. or remain the same ) . The results are accomplishable within the support and coverage periods specified.
The impact. as specified. is non beyond the range of the plan to accomplish.

Yes

Not Yet

Remarks Revisions

¦ ¦ ¦

¦ ¦ ¦

4.

¦

¦

5.

¦

¦

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

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Exercise 2 – Describing Actions
Associating It All Together
Exercise 2 illustrates precisely how you plan

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