Literature Review Job Design and Workforce Diversity Essay
“In the current business environment, what role do Job design and workforce diversity play In attempts to Improve Individual and organizational performance? ” Literature Review A significant number of Ideas have been offered to explain Job design and workforce diversity which impacts on individual and organizational performance in business environment at the present time (Yang, Penn, & Francesco, 2011 ; Foss, Membrane, Petersen, & Reinhold, 2009). Improving and developing performance will lead to goal achievements for both individuals and organizations.
Organizations should do job design together with workforce diversity in order to achieve final outcomes. Both Job design and workforce diversity purpose to match employees with the suitable tasks. This review will point out three main elements which are the definitions of Job design and workforce diversity, the effects on individual and the effects on organization. Workforce diversity is a term that describes the differences and similarities of employee characteristics including age, gender, race, cultural background, education, disabilities, physical abilities and etc. ICC creates the range of multiform among human beings in workforce. According to None, Hollowness, Gerhard, & Wright, 2013, p. 177), job design is systematic process to identify and allocate the tasks to individuals and organization Including four approaches mechanistic, motivational, biological, and perceptual-motor. Job design easily answer question how Jobs can be completed and any required tasks in the given Jobs. As today business steps into global market, workforce diversity is significantly important because the organization employs employees from deferent cultures.
Workforce diversity Is one of the ways that the members in organization help to discover and to develop the organization culture which is the pattern of interaction among employees (Egghead, 2004). According to Koru and Washington (2012), the research from scholars (Bass’, Holman, 1991; Anderson, 1993) indicates that workforce diversity creates the great strength and helps improvement in competitive advantages. He furthers that the right combination of capabilities and skills are the important goal to manage the diverse workforce. Workforce diversity can increase adaptability.
The employees from difference backgrounds can come up with individual talents and experiences in recommendatory ideas that are adjustable in adapting to oscillatory markets (Shredder, 2011). There Is a positive linkage between diverse workforce and performance (Von, Barlow, & John, 2005). From their studies, it shows that the diversity team experienced more financial returns than individual of solutions. Moreover, the success of workplace diversity can create the environments in which brings up values and minimizations among those who are different in perspectives, experiences together with backgrounds.
These strategies will help to build relationship between organization and societies. Workforce diversity itself helps improve in innovations. With the wide range of people from different perspective as mentioned above, the organization will get the wider range of insights, knowledge and ideas in order to have the best decision making. “Diversity therefore makes good business sense (Williams, 2001). ” In addition, it can help improving services in term of communication which will bring into the deep understanding of customers.
Ellis and Snowfield (1994) dispute that a positive perversity climate, Job satisfaction and commitment to the organization are linked to each other. Self-respect and feeling of non-belongingness from the employees to the organization can be increased by having suitable diversity management (cited in Injure). Employees who feel included, valued and rewarded are more engaged and motivated. Job design also plays a crucial role to maximize performance in order to get achievement in business as well as individual goals in present days.
According to Careen, Razz, and Magmata (2013), ” a well designed Job motivates workers toward ask performance” and also bring satisfaction and participation in related activities to the workers. They further that after the workers get familiar with designed Jobs they can feel more motivated with their works as a part of the achievement of organization goals and as a result the employees’ performance grow up that assertively impacts the outcomes. Gar and Ratios (2006) present the new idea of Job design which is more systematic. First step is “performance analysis” which will help in describing and understanding in performance problems.
Next, “root-cause analysis” which will identify causes of performance problems, “Intervention selection and design”, “implementation” and “evaluation”. Apart from the five stages, they also mention that leadership style is also important because leaders are the one that employees trust so they can motivate the performance of workers. In designed Jobs, performance is get involve with every processes so that the main purpose of doing Job design is to maximize performance outcomes in order to match the right people to the right positions.
Designing Jobs under focusing appropriate management strategies as internal organization factors can help to create opportunities for career improvement, skill learning and creative abilities to employees. Job design can improve recruit performance, the organization can get the person that mostly match with the duties they have to work on. Moreover, employees can works on the activities that they expected. These will reduce the rate of turnover to maintain the knowledge and experiences in organization. In conclusion, Job design and workforce diversity are directly related to performance of individuals and organizations.
The organization should design Job correspond with hat they are good at and mix the difference of people to gain new ideas. Different ideas from different perspectives will lead to the cautiously decision making. Job effect to organizations. Job design and workforce diversity are a key for engagement and commitment to the employees. The employees with fully motivation can work efficiency and effectively to complete the goals of the organization. However, there are some other factors that can improve business performance such as individual leadership skills and organization culture.