Latin 1 Final Exam Study Guide

Formation of Present Tense Verbs
verb stem + proper conj. vowel (-are: -a-. -ēre: -e-. -ere: -i-. -īre: -i-) + -o, -s, -t/ -mus, -tis, -nt. ex. amo, -are: amo, amas, amat / amamus, amatis, amant. ex. audio, -ire: audio, audis, audit/ audimus, auditis, audiunt

Formation of Imperfect Tense Verbs (Sheep!)
verb stem + -a- (for -are verbs) or -e- (for -ēre, -ere, or -īre verbs) + -bam, -bas, -bat/ -bamus, -batis, -bant. Practice this in “Forming Imperfect” Quizlet set.

Noun Cases
Nominative = subject (performer of verb action). Genitive = possessor (translate ‘of’). Dative = indirect object (translate ‘to/for’ someone). Accusative = direct object (receives action of verb). Ablative = translate with BWIOFAT. Review these on handout.

A noun club. Every noun belongs to a declension. Nouns that belong to the same declension share the same set of endings.

1st declension
A ‘ladies club.’ examples: puella, -ae, f.

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villa, -ae, f. amica, -ae, f. Nouns of this declension are almost all feminine gender, and most endings have -a- in them. Review these endings pg 81 or handout.

2nd declension
Men’s club, neuter also welcome. 2nd masc nouns have NOM ending -us, eg Marcus, -i, m. cibus, -i, m. Neuters have NOM ending -um, eg baculum, -i, n. periculum, -i, n. Review these endings pg 81 or handout.

CUR- root words
esp. recurrent, concur, discourse, cursory, incursion

LOG- root words
esp. prologue, epilogue, doxology, analogous, eulogy, neologism

Reading passage to translate and answer questions about.
Based on Chapter 12 reading, pg 89. Know the vocabulary in this set for translating it, and know any English derivatives given for a matching section.

invenio, -ire
to find [Eng. invent]

convoco, -are
to call together [Eng. convocation]

rogo, -are
to ask [Eng. interrogation]

fossa, -ae, f
ditch [Eng. fossil]

canis, canis, m/f
dog [Eng. canine]

fero, ferre
to carry, bear [Eng. transfer]

olfacio, olfacere
to smell [Eng. olfactory]

cum (prep w/ ablative noun)

vestigium, -i, n
track, trace, footprint [Eng. investigate, vestigial]

traho, -ere
to drag [Eng. tractor]

sollicitus, -a, -um

reprehendo, -ere
to scold, chew out

vilicus, -i, m
farm manager

mitto, -ere
to send

peto, -ere
to seek, look for

iubeo, -ēre
to order

duco, -ere
to lead

venio, -īre
to come

deinde, tum

sum, esse. possum, posse
esse = to be. posse = to be able (pos-sum, pot-es, pot-est / pos-sumus, pot-estis, pos-sunt)

arripio, arripere
to grab

dormio, -ire
to sleep

effugio, effugere
to run away

appropinquo, -are
to approach

celo, -are
to hide [Eng. conceal]

arbor, arboris, f

ramus, -i, m

baculum, -i, n

verbero, -are
to beat

neque… neque…
neither… nor


bonus, -a, -um





By, With, In, On, From, AT (translation words when you come across a stand-alone ablative)

Letters burned onto forehead of runaway slaves
FUG (fugitivus)

How Many Parts to a Roman name?
3 – praenomen, nomen, cognomen

Rights of slaves during Saturnalia
Temporary freedom, wearing of the pileus (freedman’s cap), gambling with masters

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