Labour Mobility In The EU Sociology
- Figure 1: Percentage of people who have ne’er moved after go forthing parental place, by state
- Figure 2: Average continuance of stay in each home, by state ( old ages )
- Figure 3: Past form of long distance mobility in the EU, by state ( % )
- Table 1: Past mobility, by finish and by state ( % )
- Mobility purpose
- Figure 4: Percentage of people who do non mean to travel in the following five old ages, by state
- Figure 5: Percentage of people who expect to travel to another EU state in the following five old ages, by state
- Job mobility
- Figure 6: Percentage of people who have ne’er changed employer, by state
- Figure 7: Average occupation continuance, by state ( old ages )
- Figure 8: Recent Job mobility, by state ( % )
- Figure 9: Job mobility purposes, by state
- Mobility in the two dimensions – geographical and occupation mobility
- Figure 10: Correlation of geographical with labour market mobility ( % )
- Eurobarometer 2005 versus Eurobarometer 2001: Changes over timespan
- Past forms of occupation mobility
- Figure 11: Past forms of occupation mobility, by state, in twelvemonth 2001 and twelvemonth 2005
- Prospect of altering occupations
- Figure 12: Percentage of people who expect to travel, in twelvemonth 2001 and twelvemonth 2005
Researchs/ Analysis mentions: Related studies from the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions which were based on the informations obtained from the 2005 Eurobarometer study on geographical and labour market mobility. Geographic mobility is non a widespread phenomenon in Europe. The EB 64.1 study besides reveals a singular difference between the states in footings of mobility degree and mobility form. Data provided from EB 64.1 was analysed utilizing assorted indexs.
Number of moves: The degree of residential mobility or residential stableness in EU Member States is examined through the figure of moves Europeans have made after go forthing their parental place to get down a family of their ain. This analysis can be seen besides from the per centum of Europeans who have ne’er moved after going their parental place.
On norm, approximately 17 % of Europeans have ne’er moved after go forthing their parental place – neither within nor outside their state of beginning.
As shown in Figure 1, the national differences are really big, runing from less than 5 % in Sweden, Finland and Denmark to some 40 % and greater in Slovakia and Malta severally. The Nordic states display the smallest proportion of people that did non travel after their first travel out of their parental place, while a figure of the new Member States ( NMS ) show high proportions of people non doing any subsequent life-course moves. The NMS are non a homogenous class in this regard – states such as Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania show greater mobility than, for illustration, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary.
Figure 1: Percentage of people who have ne’er moved after go forthing parental place, by state
Duration of stay: After doing their first life-course move ( go forthing their parental place ) , some people settle themselves for good at their new abode, while others change their abode several times over the following sequences of their life class.
The mean stay in each home for the EU25 on norm is somewhat under 10 old ages.
There is a wide scope across Member States, with above-average continuances in southern European states and in most of the NMS, and shorter continuances in Norse states and in the Netherlands, UK and France. Except for Latvia and Lithuania, all the NMS have an mean continuance of stay per brooding that is above the EU norm ( the EU15 are dispersed around the mean ) .
Figure 2: Average continuance of stay in each home, by state ( old ages )
Past forms of long distance mobility: An of import portion of the questionnaire in the 2005 Eurobarometer mobility study was devoted to the distance involved in past motions since go forthing the parental place – whether the move was within the individual ‘s ain town or metropolis ; outside the town or metropolis but within the same part ; outside the part but within the same state ; or to a state outside the EU.
Broadly speech production, mobility – whether short or long distance – is comparatively high in the Nordic states. By contrast, in most of the NMS and Southern European states ( with the exclusion of Malta ) , mobility within or outside the part is comparatively low. The two states with the greatest intra-EU yesteryear mobility are Ireland and Luxembourg ( followed by Cyprus ) . The UK, Denmark and Ireland besides show a comparatively high degree of mobility outside the EU.
Figure 3: Past form of long distance mobility in the EU, by state ( % )
Table 1: Past mobility, by finish and by state ( % )
There are big differences between EU Member States in footings of expected future mobility. Mobility purpose is shown to be highest in those states with societal democratic and broad public assistance province governments. The high occupation mobility of the Baltic states is besides confirmed by their expected future mobility. Citizens of Portugal and Italy are least inclined to alter their employer. Corporatist public assistance governments, such as Austria and Belgium ( but with the exclusion of France ) , score low on occupation mobility outlooks.
In general, citizens in the EU15 express greater purposes of traveling than their opposite numbers in the NMS. However, when single states are looked at, a form emerges of four groups of states, with distinguishable profiles of mobility outlooks. These four groups are listed in falling order of the uttered purposes of their citizens.
In four high mobility NMS ( Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland ) , more citizens have steadfast purposes of traveling – between 2.4 % and 4.2 %
In four high mobility EU15 states ( Denmark, Ireland, Finland and Sweden ) between 1.4 % and 2.9 % of citizens have steadfast purposes of traveling: more than twice the degree in the low-mobility NMS ;
In the 11 low mobility EU15 states, citizens display a somewhat higher purpose of traveling than those in the low mobility NMS.
In four low mobility NMS ( Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia ) few citizens have steadfast purposes of traveling – between 0.5 % and 1.8 % .
Figure 4: Percentage of people who do non mean to travel in the following five old ages, by state
Figure 5: Percentage of people who expect to travel to another EU state in the following five old ages, by state
Job mobility, which is defined herewith as calling alterations within paid employment, comprises all passages between different divisions of the labor market and between different socio-economic places in the labor market.
Switch overing employer or Peoples who have ne’er changed employer: The degree of occupation mobility can be measured through the figure of times people have changed employer, and the mean continuance of each occupation they have held. The EB64.1 study looked at the comparative proportions of people who had ne’er changed employer after the age of 35 old ages ( this age was chosen to equilibrate the fact that younger people may ne’er hold had the chance to alter occupations, or in other words, in order to avoid including immature people for whom non altering employer does non needfully bespeak a deficiency of mobility, “ ne’er nomadic ” people are defined here as those who have ne’er changed employer and are aged 35 or older ) . With this definition, 25 % of respondents in the Eurobarometer mobility study have ne’er changed employer in their calling.
There are significant differences between the states of the EU25 in the per centum of people who have ne’er changed employer. In the EU15, the lowest proportions of respondents who have ne’er changed employer are found in the UK and in the societal democratic states of Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands. In the NMS, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania besides have low proportions. Southern states, such as Malta, Greece, Portugal and Italy, have much higher proportions of respondents who have ne’er changed employer.
Figure 6: Percentage of people who have ne’er changed employer, by state
Average occupation continuance: Job mobility can besides be measured by occupation continuance. This index is used to analyze occupation mobility by looking at the whole population of respondents in the study and depicting their occupation mobility during their full labor market calling. Shorter occupation continuances indicate greater mobility. Those states with the lowest proportion of citizens who had ne’er changed occupations besides have the shortest occupation continuances. Because of the fact that older people have had more chances to alter employer than younger people, this index is used to rectify for length of calling. The mean occupation continuance is calculated by spliting the length of the labour market calling by the figure of occupations of the person: Average occupation continuance I = ( age i – age first occupation I ) / figure of occupations Is.
In Europe, the mean occupation continuance is calculated to be 8.3 old ages. The lowest mean occupation continuance ( and therefore the highest occupation mobility over the full calling ) is found in those Member States before typified as holding a low proportion of people who had ne’er changed employer, i.e. the Norse states of Denmark, Sweden and Finland, the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the UK and the Netherlands. Denmark has the shortest occupation continuance, at merely under five old ages, while Portugal has the longest, at 11 old ages.
Figure 7: Average occupation continuance, by state ( old ages )
It is besides notable the age divide in occupation mobility behavior. Longer occupation continuances, and therefore less occupation mobility, is found among older respondents. It seems that workers tend to maintain their labor market place in the ulterior phases of their calling, either because they have found a occupation that satisfies them or because they perceive their opportunities of happening another occupation to be little ( for illustration, because of employers ‘ penchants for younger campaigners ) or this can be due to the pension rights portability ground. The mean figure of occupations does non increase for people aged 35 and supra. This indicates that, in the past, people stayed longer with the same employer than they do now.
Recent occupation alterations: Job mobility behavior is besides examined through the most recent alteration of employer and the timing of this latest alteration.
25 % of working respondents have ne’er changed employer or 75 % of the presently working respondents have changed employer at least one time in their calling. About 50 % of the presently working respondents have changed employer at least one time over the class of the last 10 old ages ; 32 % of them joined their current employer in the last five old ages. Out of the full on the job population, 8 % changed employer every bit late as during the last twelvemonth ( 2005, when the study was conducted ) .
The consequences on recent occupation mobility degrees are in line with the old findings on occupation mobility over the full labor market calling. Denmark is the EU15 state with the highest recent occupation mobility rates ( about 16 % of the Danish work force joined their current employer every bit late as within the last twelvemonth ) . The UK and Ireland display the following highest rates of recent occupation mobility among the EU15. In the NMS, high recent occupation mobility rates are found in the Baltic states ( Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania ) , with Hungary holding the most occupationally nomadic population of the NMS. Most southern European states ( e.g. Greece, Malta and Portugal ) and Austria typically show lower degrees of occupation mobility, most people holding joined their current employer some clip ago. Spain and Cyprus do non follow this form and have moderate mobility rates.
Looking into the extent of recent occupation mobility – the proportion of citizens who have changed employer within the last twelvemonth, the consequences are in line with old steps. The highest recent mobility rates in the EU are found in Denmark ( about 16 % ) ; in other EU15 states the highest rates are found in the UK ( merely under 13 % ) and Ireland ( 11 % ) . The highest rates in the NMS are found in Latvian Hungary and Estonia ( over 13 % ) and Lithuania ( over 12 % ) . Most Southern European states every bit good as Austria show lower rates of mobility.
Figure 8: Recent Job mobility, by state ( % )
Job mobility purposes: Of those respondents who were presently working at the clip of the study, 43 % said that they expected to alter their current occupation in the following five old ages. Expectations of future mobility are highest in the broad and societal democratic public assistance provinces, and in the Baltic states. Citizens in corporatist public assistance provinces and Southern European states have fewer purposes of altering employer.
Figure 9: Job mobility purposes, by state
It is evidenced that there are of import differences in occupation mobility between EU Member States and that these are more or less consistent over all facets of occupation mobility. There seems to be a correlativity between high degrees of occupation mobility and the categorization of public assistance province governments, as defined by Esping-Andersen ( 1990 ) . At the high terminal of the occupation mobility graduated table are the societal democratic and broad public assistance province states. Denmark is the most nomadic of the societal democratic states, although the other three states in that class ( Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands ) besides score extremely on the different facets of mobility. Of the broad public assistance provinces, the UK displays higher occupation mobility than does Ireland. A last group of nomadic states consists of some of the NMS – the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The group demoing the lowest overall occupation mobility comprises the southern European states of Portugal, Greece, Italy and Spain ( although Spain is slightly of an exclusion since it frequently shows occupation mobility degrees that are close to or even above the EU norm ) . Malta can clearly be added to this last group since it displays a comparably low occupation mobility degree. Cyprus, on the other manus, shows higher occupation mobility and should therefore non be classified within this group of states. The corporatist public assistance province governments ( Germany, France, Belgium, Austria and Luxembourg ) and the five staying NMS ( Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia ) portion the in-between place on the graduated table of high-to-low occupation mobility. In the group of corporatist states, Austria is the least nomadic, with occupation mobility degrees similar to those of some Mediterranean states ; France, on the other manus, systematically shows higher-than-average occupation mobility. Hungary is by far the most occupationally nomadic state of the NMS in this group.
Mobility in the two dimensions – geographical and occupation mobility
Geographic mobility and occupation mobility are clearly related: a bulk of moves across parts or boundary lines are made for job-related grounds. The findings on geographical and occupation mobility can therefore be combined to organize a view of European mobility. Across Europe, it would look that degrees of geographical mobility and of occupation mobility coincide: in states that have high degrees of geographical mobility, people tend to alter occupations more frequently.
Figure 10: Correlation of geographical with labour market mobility ( % )
One observation that can be made by looking at the two dimensions of mobility is that the sprinkling of states forms a loose, upward-sloping diagonal ; this indicates a positive correlativity between the degrees of both mobility types. In other words, this means that states with a high proportion of citizens altering abode are besides states with high degrees of occupation mobility. This supports a position of Europe as being polarised into nomadic, or less nomadic, states in the two dimensions of mobility.
The consequence can besides be interpreted in footings of bunchs – either regional, or of employment and public assistance governments. In Figure 10, the interregional differences within Europe are emphasised by reorganizing the Member States into different groups. Broadly talking, the 25 states are divided into four groups:
Nordic states ( Demark, Sweden and Finland ) , Baltic states ( Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia ) and the UK and the Netherlands: All these northern European states show high degrees of both geographical and occupation mobility. The highest mobility rates are found in the Nordic states and the UK, the Baltic states and the Netherlands following near behind.
Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Ireland: These five states form a bunch in which geographical mobility is more outstanding, but occupation mobility is moderate. International mobility is really evident in Luxembourg and Ireland. Intra-EU mobility in both Germany and Belgium is at the mean degree. France scores somewhat below norm in footings of intra-EU mobility, but more people populating in France have moved outside Europe.
Two Mediterranean states ( Spain and Cyprus ) and two cardinal European states ( the Czech Republic and Hungary ) : These states have a low degree of residential mobility, but a higher occupation mobility degree.
Four Mediterranean states ( Malta, Greece, Italy and Portugal ) and four cardinal European states ( Slovakia, Poland, Slovenia and Austria ) : This bunch is characterised by a by and large low mobility profile on both dimensions. A comparatively low figure of people moved abode and occupation mobility is lower than the European norm. It is noted that these states besides have a low to chair degree of international mobility.
The division of European states harmonizing to their mobility profile shows a singular resemblance to the public assistance province typology devised by Esping – Andersen ( 1990 ) . High mobility rates are found in the societal democratic and broad public assistance governments. High degrees of geographical mobility, but moderate occupation mobility are a feature of the corporatist public assistance governments. The southern European government seems to be associated with low mobility. This correlativity indicates that different public assistance province governments facilitate geographical mobility in different ways ( Muffels et al, 2002 ) .
Eurobarometer 2005 versus Eurobarometer 2001: Changes over timespan
Labour mobility in European states has been study in Eurobarometer 2001 ( EB54.2 ) . By doing a comparing of the degree of occupation mobility in the 2005 Eurobarometer mobility study ( EB 64.1 ) with the informations obtained in 2001 for the EU15 ( EB 54.2 ) , it is possible to pull some tendency in mobility degrees in the EU over clip.
Past forms of occupation mobility
Cautious comparing with earlier informations on occupation mobility would take to the decision that occupation mobility has somewhat increased. In the 2001 edition of the Eurobarometer mobility study ( EB54.2 ) , 29 % of the respondents reported holding changed occupations over the last five old ages. The corresponding per centum found in the 2005 study ( EB 64.1 ) is 32 % , which would indicate to a little addition in rates of occupation mobility in the EU15 over the last five old ages.
Across states, same form of occupation mobility is shown in Norse states in twelvemonth 2001, with the highest occupation mobility degree in Denmark, 52.5 % of the study respondents have changed occupations in the last five old ages. The Netherlands ( 59.1 % ) and Sweden ( 55.8 % ) join the group of states whose citizens change occupations most frequently. The title-holders of occupation stableness are the Greeks, of whom 79 % have n’t changed occupations in the last five old ages. More than A? of citizens in the undermentioned states are in the same place: Belgium ( 78.3 % ) , the Western Lander and Germany ( 77.6 % ) , Luxembourg ( 77.5 % ) , Italy ( 76.8 ) , Portugal ( 75.5 % and Germany ( 75.3 % ) . These consequences reveal rather the same bunchs as occupation mobility in twelvemonth 2005 shown by Eurobarometer study EB64.1.
In footings of occupation mobility frequence, the 2001 study besides reveals a diverseness of state of affairss in the EU Member States. The Finnish are those who have changed occupations with the highest frequence in the last five old ages ( up to the study clip 2001 ) , 2.7 % times on norm ( EU 15 mean degree was 2 times ) . This figure is driven in peculiar by the 10 % of Finnish citizens who have changed occupations more than five times. Three other states besides stand out among EU15 are: Spain ( mean frequence of 2.43 ) , the Netherlands ( 2.31 ) and Greece ( 2.31 ) . The lowest frequences when it comes to altering occupations are observed in Germany ( 1.78 ) , Portugal ( 1.77 ) , Luxembourg ( 1.73 ) and Ireland ( 1.72 ) .
Figure 11: Past forms of occupation mobility, by state, in twelvemonth 2001 and twelvemonth 2005
Prospect of altering occupations
Mobility purposes were besides recorded in the Eurobarometer 2001 for the EU15 states ( EB 54.2 ) . In 2001, merely 22 % reported an purpose to travel within the following five old ages. In 2005 ( EB64.1 ) , the bulk ( 69 % ) of the European population ( aged 18 or more ) had no purposes of traveling, while 31 % expected to travel within the following five old ages. There seems to hold been an addition between 2001 and 2005 of those people who intend to travel within the EU – in the EU15.
Again, the European groups that are most positive they will alter occupations within the following five old ages are to be found in the UK and Nordic states, and the Netherlands, 40 % of British people said Yes to the inquiry “ Do you believe you will alter occupations in the following five old ages? “ , Denmark ( 39 % ) , Sweden ( 37 % ) , the Netherlands ( 33 % ) , Finland ( 33 % ) . At the other terminal of the graduated table, the states where the likeliness to alter occupations in the following five old ages is considered lowest are Austria ( 15 % ) , Italy ( 15 % ) and Germany ( 12 % ) .