KINE 292 – Chapter 5

the ability of a joint to move through its normal, full range of motion
Flexibility is a highly _______ fitness component and responds well when utilized as part of a fitness program.
Flexibility is _____ specific, meaning that you must work all major joints, not just a few.
static flexibility
the ability to hold an extended position at one end or point in a joint’s range of motion; depends on your ability to tolerate stretched muscles, the structure of your joints, and the elasticity of muscles
dynamic flexibility
the ability to move a joint through its range of motion with little resistance; important for daily activities and sports
its structure, muscle elasticity and length, and the nervous system
What affects the flexibility of a joint?
hinge joints, ball and socket joints, joint capsules, and heredity
What components affect a joint’s structure?
joint capsules
semielastic structures, composed primarily of connective tissue, that surround major joints
synovial fluid
cushions the bones and reduces friction as the joint moves
white fibers that provide structure and support in connective tissue
yellow fibers that make connective tissue flexible
a structural protein in muscles that has elastic properties and contributes to flexibility
elastic elongation
temporary change in the length of muscles, tendons, and supporting connective tissues
plastic elongation
long-term change in the length of muscles, tendons, and supporting connective tissues
nerves that sends information about the muscular and skeletal systems to the nervous system
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
a set of stretching techniques used to enhance both active and passive range of motion to improve motor performance and aid rehabilitation
joint health, prevention of low-back pain and injuries, relief of: aches and pains, and muscle cramps, improved body position and strength for sports (and life), maintenance of good posture and balance, relaxation, and improving impaired mobility
What are the benefits of flexibility?
True or False: Because flexibility is joint-specific, there are no tests for general flexibility.
sit-and-reach test
What is the most commonly used flexibility test?
F: 2-3 days a week (minimum)
I: stretch to the point of mild discomfort, not pain
T: hold stretches for 15-30 sec, perform 2-4 reps
T: stretching exercises that focus on major joints
Apply the FITT principle to Developing Flexibility:
static stretching
a technique in which a muscle is slowly and gently stretched and then held in the stretched position
ballistic stretching
a technique in which muscles are stretched by the force generated as a body part is repeatedly bounced, swung, or jerked
dynamic stretching
a technique in which the muscles are stretched by moving joints slowly and fluidly through their range of motion in a controlled manner
passive stretching
a technique in which muscles are stretched by force applied by an outside source
active stretching
a technique in which muscles are stretched by the contractions of the opposing muscles
What percentage of Americans will experience back pain at some point in their life?
weak and inflexible muscles, poor posture, poor body mechanics during activity
What is back pain most often the result of?
provides support for the body, surrounds and protects the spinal cord, supports much of the body weight, serves as an attachment site for a large number of muscles, tendons, ligaments; allows movement of the neck and back in all directions
What are some functions of the spine?
bony segments composing the spinal column that provide structural support for the body and protect the spinal cord
intervertebral disks
an elastic disk located between adjoining vertebrae, consisting of a gel- and water-filled nucleus surround by fibrous rings; serves as a shock absorber for the spinal column
nerve roots
the bases of the 31 pairs of spinal nerves that branch off the spinal cord through the spaces between vertebrae
core muscles
the trunk muscles extending from the hips to the upper back
True or False: Core muscles stabilize the spine and help transfer force between the upper body and the lower body.
True or False: Lack of core muscle fitness can create an unstable spine and stress muscles and joints.
True or False: Whole body exercises, exercises using free weights, or stability balls all build core muscle fitness.
At any point
Where along your spine can back pain occur?
lumbar area
Where along your spine is the most common site for back pain?
age greater than 34 years, degenerative diseases such as arthritis or osteoporosis, a family or personal history of back pain, a sedentary lifestyle, excess body weight
What are some risk factors associated with low-back pain?
maintain a healthy weight, stop smoking, reduce stress, avoid sitting, standing, or working in the same position for too long, use a supportive seat, a medium-firm mattress, warm up thoroughly before exercising, gradual progress for strength and fitness
What steps can you take to prevent low back pain?
pain, muscle spasms, stiffness, and inflammation
What are some symptoms of acute back pain?
apply heat/cold, over-the-counter medication (ibuprofen/ naproxen), bed rest, exercise
How can you treat acute back pain?
lie on your side with your knees and hips bent; if you lie on your back, place a pillow under your knees
How should you protect your back while sleeping?
sit with your lower back slightly rounded, knees bent, and feet flat on the floor; alternate crossing your legs or use a footrest to keep your knees higher than your hips
How should you protect your back when sitting?
keep your weight mainly on your heels, with one or both knees bent, don’t let your back arch
How should you protect your back when standing?
walk with your toes pointed straight ahead, back flat, head up, and chin in
How should you protect your back when walking?
bend at the knees and hips instead of at the waist; lift gradually by pushing up with your leg muscles
How should you protect your back when lifting?
at least 3 days per week
How often should you perform low-back exercises in the prevention and management of low back pain?
muscular endurance
Should you emphasize muscular strength or muscular endurance when preventing/managing low back pain?

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