Khushwant Singh The Postmodern Columnist Theology Religion
This survey has been designed to analyze subjects in Khushwant Singh ‘s articles and columns written over a period of last five decennaries every bit good as the mode of their presentation. The survey is expositive, analytical and interpretive. The research worker has used longitudinal research design for a rhetorical unfavorable judgment of his write-ups during the period specified. To do the survey manageable, the research worker has taken a random sample of Khushwant Singh ‘s 450 articles and columns out of the existence of write-ups produced during the period. On the one manus, the research worker has scrutinised the articles and columns at single degree, on the other manus she has attempted the comparative analysis of the subjects of Khushwant Singh ‘s Hagiographas published during different decennaries. The survey reveals that there is a immense spread between the perceptual experience and individuality of Khushwant Singh as a journalist. The survey establishes the fact that howsoever skewed the popular perceptual experience about Khushwant Singh may be, the fact of the affair is that Khushwant Singh has been keenly pre-occupied with subjects of significance for human dealingss and societal wellbeing and advancement. The survey reveals that his manner is celebratory and post-modernist at one time. In fact, one of the trademarks of post-modernist authorship is that it celebrates the fragmental and the ‘partial ‘ . Khushwant Singh ‘s Hagiographas give ample grounds of his celebratory tone, which at times even boundary lines on the rambunctious, strident and Bohemian attitude to life.
This survey attempts to analyse the development of Khushwant Singh as a journalist, in peculiar as a editorialist, by concentrating attending on the kaleidoscopic array of subjects and manners used to show them. Khushwant Singh was born in 1915 in a little small town, Hadali in Punjab ( now in Pakistan ) . His male parent, Sobha Singh, was one of the contractors engaged in the edifice of New Delhi. After his early schooling in Delhi, he graduated from Government College, Lahore, in 1934 and went thenceforth to King ‘s College, London. Finally, in 1939, he qualified as a barrister from the Inner Temple. Returning to India the same twelvemonth, he married Kaval Malik and began rehearsing jurisprudence in Lahore. Law was the profession he could non follow by bosom. Finally, the divider of British India in 1947 forced him to travel to Delhi. After passing three old ages at diplomatic posters in London and Ottawa, he gave up his place in Indian Foreign Service and returned to Delhi where he joined the External Service of All-India Radio as a manufacturer of English programmes. His first novel was published by the rubric Mano Majra in 1956 in New York, and every bit Train to Pakistan in London. It is considered as his best work of fiction and the one upon which his repute as a novelist bases. He wrote the 2nd novel, I Shall Not Hear the Nightingale in 1959, partly based upon his household narrative, the novel was a success. After holding stretch with Law, IFS and fiction authorship he settled down with news media as a profession that gave him complete professional satisfaction. This brought existent Khushwant Singh out of his pen.
His journalistic calling started with his stretch in Yojana as an editor. However, major discovery in his journalistic calling came in 1969 when he was offered editorship of The Illustrated Weekly of India. The Weekly brought him name, celebrity and money. The ‘Editor ‘s Page ‘ came to be a widely read column. He wrote in his column about every issue under the sky. In 1975, he received Padma Bhushan in acknowledgment of his part to Journalism and Literature from the so President V V Giri. After a long term of office in The Weekly he had a brief stretch with New Delhi, free Press Journal and National Herald. He was appointed Editor, Hindustan times and nominative Rajya Sabha Member in 1980. The ‘Editor ‘s Page ‘ came to be a widely read column. He wrote in his column about every issue under the sky. After releiving from The Hindustan Times he started lending his column ‘Gossip Sweet & A ; Sour ‘ for Sunday of Anand Bazar Patrika. Written on assorted issues of societal involvement the column became a family name for the readers of Sunday. Later on, in 1989 he started his popular column ‘This Above All ‘ for The Tribune, Chandigarh. In 2007, he was awarded Padma Vibhushan at a glittering ceremonial. Even at the age of 96, his ink has non dried yet.
Any appraisal of Khushwant Singh as a journalist, in peculiar as a editorialist, must contextualise such an appraisal in the genre of sentiment authorship in news media. The saga of the growing of sentiment authorship in Indian and planetary imperativeness witnessed assorted stages since the beginning of imperativeness. It became a separate genre in journalistic Hagiographas in twentieth century and articles and column Hagiographas became indispensable portion of forenoon dailies and periodicals. At present, column authorship has become one of the highest paid avenues for journalists. The development of column news media over the old ages shows that column composing came to get certain features that distinguished it from other signifiers of journalistic authorship, in both content and signifier.
When Khushwant Singh arrived as a editorialist on the India media landscape, the clip was mature for column authorship in India. Objective coverage that valorises facts as against sentiments and has the advantage of describing intelligence without esthesis in contrast to yellow news media had reached its bursting point. Newspapers had lost their lively and personal touch, because articles consisted of little more than of who, why, what, where and when. In add-on, columns were written impersonally and carried newspaper ‘s position. Furthermore, they were non by-lined. Columnists met the demand of readers who wanted to cognize ‘why ‘ by pass oning with them through their Hagiographas. Readers conferred with them through reading and believing about the averments of editorialists they made in their columns. Since editorialists boast of their rational domination and connexions to intelligence beginnings, their columns were the convincing governments to judge what was right.
In the visible radiation of the predating treatment, this survey attempts to analyze Khushwant Singh ‘s journalistic plants and to measure his columns in the frame of post-modernist authorship. But before we may set about the survey, we take a expression at the bing literature on the topic.
Reappraisal of literature
In this subdivision, an effort has been made to reexamine the available literature on journalistic plants of Khushwant Singh to acquire a preliminary image of the critical plants done by different bookmans. It will assist to find the demand of present survey.
Khushwant Singh has been projected as a editorialist, to the exclusion of his rich personality and varied involvements reflected amply in his journalistic Hagiographas and as the editor of reputed periodicals and newspapers like Yojana, The Illustrated Weekly of India and The Hindustan Times. The editorship of these documents showed him in the visible radiation of an high art critic, referee of movies and books and concentrating his attending on the finer facets of life.
R K Dhawan ( 1988 )[ 1 ]perceptively negotiations about Khushwant Singh ‘s provoking inclination as a rebellion against the constituted norms. “ Khushwant Singh wants to floor and arouse bing norms of Victorian morality, which he must hold been discomforted by in his younger yearss. ” Khushwant Singh is known for get downing new tendencies in news media. He challenged the bing regulations of the game.
Although on his wide canvas of columns there lies a assortment of subjects runing from society, political relations to faith and doctrine, yet Bharat Ram ( 2000 )[ 2 ]comments about his journalistic capablenesss are something implicative of a negative unfavorable judgment. “ I do n’t rate him a great journalist because his news media does non inform or propose. His Hagiographas are non obliging on political, societal or other issues. He writes like a critic. But he is a reputed journalist and I think he is cagey excessively. He writes about sex and merely sex. He possesses this sleight in great step that what do readers like and remarks amiss. He enjoys contentions and there is non the slightest hint of heartache after the contention. He writes whatever he feels common adult male enjoys reading. He is to the lowest degree bothered approximately right or incorrect. His Hagiographas are straightforward in nature. He is a great author because his Hagiographas are easier and gratifying. He uses simple English in his Hagiographas. Every reader can digest his books and Hagiographas easy. That is why he is so popular amongst the readers. ”
Novy Kapadia ( 2001 )[ 3 ]writes about his interior esthesias and manner of life, “ By composing a novel of sexploits and the voyeuristic position of male and female anatomy and tickling histories of the countless sexual brushs, Khushwant Singh is parodying all the spiritual and moral tabu and codifications of societal reputability imposed on persons in modern-day Indian society. By cleverly presenting and foregrounding masculine phantasies of seductive adult females, the crafty old adult male of Indian English fiction could therefore be holding a last laugh at the ostentation and holier-than-thou morality of in-between category India. His plants have ever provoked utmost reaction. ” Throughout his calling, Khushwant Singh has been an image breaker.[ 4 ]He minces no words and spares no 1. He has come to accept the contradiction between his public image and his existent life style and attitudes to life.
Khushwant Singh is to the full cognizant of the psychological science of Indian readers that makes him the most sought after editorialist of modern-day times.[ 5 ]“ The reader of Singh ‘s Hagiographas – in-between category English educated Indian ( normally ) – aware of the bare inside informations, or the type of the anecdote. This consciousness of generic inside informations is more or less universalized in Singh ‘s essays: India fear of holy work forces ( and holy cow, as Singh adds ) , false gurus, autocratic adult females, and the enormousness of the American continent. ” writes Pramod K Nayar ( 2001 ) .[ 6 ]
Khushwant Singh may be credited with the innovator in observing nakedness in Indian news media. He used American and European newspaper as mention points during his editorship of The Illustrated Weekly of India. Amardeep ( 2006 )[ 7 ]writes, “ He broke the chokehold of Anglophilia by taking the United States as his English-language mention point instead than England. As an editor, it was wild, sometimes rubbishy American civilization in and after the sixtiess that Khushwant brought into the pages of The Illustrated Weekly: stone N ‘ axial rotation, the Vietnam War protests, and the counter-culture ( including the important constituent of barefoot, Enlightenment-seeking flower peoples who ended up in India ) . True, some of the images of bikini-clad free-love childs in Goa splashed on the pages of The Illustrated Weekly were instead more like tabloid sensationalism than serious news media, but there ‘s no uncertainty that these images had an consequence on how Indians saw themselves in that epoch. ”
It has been considered to set about this survey as merely a few bookmans have written research and term documents on his articles and columns, but no 1 has conducted a comprehensive survey on his journalistic plants. The focal point of the survey is to analyze the journalistic plants of Khushwant Singh who is better known for his hebdomadal column ‘With maliciousness towards one and all ‘ of Hindustan Times with the following aims:
To place the scope and concentration of subjects in his articles and columns.
To analyze the alone characteristics of his journalistic manner as evidenced in the articles and columns.
Research Design and Methods
The present survey is based upon the primary informations collected from Khushwant Singh ‘s articles and columns published in different newspapers. The survey is based on sample of 450 articles and columns of Khushwant Singh, he has written in last five decennaries. These articles and columns are representative of the columns and articles Khushwant Singh wrote in his full journalistic calling. The research worker has used longitudinal research design for the survey. As the survey is qualitative in nature, the research worker has used historical research method and used rhetorical unfavorable judgment to analyze the subject and intervention of Khushwant Singh ‘s journalistic plants.
Consequences and Discussion
This portion analyses the consequences obtained from the quantitative analysis and rhetorical analysis of Khushwant Singh ‘s articles published in The New York Times, The Illustrated Weekly of India, Sunday, Evening News, The Statesman, The Guardian, The Observer, Outlook, India Today and Holiday, his most widely read columns in English – ‘Editor ‘s Page ‘ of The Illustrated Weekly of India, ‘Gossip Sweet & A ; Sour ‘ of Sunday ‘With maliciousness towards one and all ‘ of Hindustan Times and ‘This Above All ‘ of The Tribune.
The overview of his full journalistic ( 1959-2008 ) works taken for the survey is indicated in Table 1.
Table 1 reveals that out of 450 articles and columns taken for the survey 22.9 % trade with memoirs. The 2nd topographic point is occupied by civilization i.e. 21.23 % . Political issues occupy about one-fifth of the full scope of subjects. Although celebrated for composing all rubbish the editorialist has written on rational subjects ( 19.37 % of the entire subjects ) . Besides, trifle constitutes merely 2.23 % of the sample infinite while 8.57 % and 3.35 % of the entire infinite go to societal issues and ecology. Economic issues find the least infinite in Khushwant Singh ‘s articles and columns with 1.86 % portion.
Obviously, there is a immense spread between the perceptual experience and individuality of Khushwant Singh as a journalist. The gulf becomes evident in the four different attacks adopted in this survey to understand and measure his journalistic plants.
As the attack adopted for analyzing Khushwant Singh ‘s journalistic plants is rhetorical unfavorable judgment, so this affords an in-depth survey of the assorted subjects discussed in his plants both synchronically and diachronically. The synchronous analysis of the assorted subjects and their intervention in his plant reveals the societal subjects that grab his attending. Khushwant Singh writes about harlotry, beggary, instruction, societal disparity, gender issues and matrimonial system. Khushwant Singh advocates legalization of harlotry[ 8 ]to convey in transparence and to get the better of the stigmatization of adult females engaged in this profession. He shows the humanistic concern for the predicament of adult females of this profession. However, he is against professional beggary as he feels that it is the beginning of many immoralities in the society. However, he draws a line of differentiation between imploring and charity. Charity, he feels leads to empowerment of the handicapped while imploring promotes a parasitical civilization.[ 9 ]On instruction, he adopts a line, which is different from that of formalized system. He considers instruction as a procedure of socialization and as a agency to control the bestiality of adult male. Khushwant Singh comes down to a great extent on the immorality of corruptness and babudom.[ 10 ]The establishment of matrimony does non have much blessing from him as he considers it as a icky adult male made establishment, which corrodes the personality of both hubby and married woman.[ 11 ]Related to this subject is that of gender sensitiveness.[ 12 ]He is vocal against gender disparity every bit good as other signifiers of societal disparities. Here, he invokes the illustration of Sikh Guru Gobind Singh. Harmonizing to whom, “ maanas ki jaat sab ek he pehchaanbo – respect all mankind as of one caste ; it is the Sikh opposite number of Vasudhaiva Kutumbkam.[ 13 ]
Khushwant Singh ‘s place on societal issues reveals saneness and reason every bit far as he hammers at those immoralities, which destroy harmoniousness in the society. Obviously, Khushwant Singh is non every bit light-minded as the populace every bit good as referees ‘ perceptual experience is. In the same vena, he besides reveals his fear for the words of Sikh ‘s Gurus who fought against societal and spiritual inequality. However, it is when he dissects the institute of matrimony so he reveals the image breaker in him. Besides the mode in which he comes down upon societal immoralities demoing his preference for dianoetic prose manner that approximates to post modernist composing. It is this dianoetic manner, which puts off most of the rationally minded readers, forcing them to see the sense of light-mindedness and non-seriousness in his Hagiographas.
When he turns to economic issues, Khushwant Singh ‘s premier concern is economic disparity. He portrays the contrast between two universes – the tradition of an Indian small town without even basic comfortss and the glorious life of a tube[ 14 ]. He is a review of the swayers who enjoys their lives on public money and reprobate them by labelling as parasites.[ 15 ]Khushwant Singh ‘s manner is anecdotal even when he engages with a serious topic like economic inequality. The intent ever remains to convey out the human side of the job. Rather, the focal point is on foregrounding the human calamity involved in such inequalities.
In his political Hagiographas, the topics he touches upon scope from communalism and elections to political political orientation and political system. In fact, he writes prolifically on elections, disposal, communalism, secularism, prohibition, exigency, human rights, democracy, patriotism, international dealingss, Pakistan, political political orientation and political system. He is a votary of democracy as an instrument of people ‘s authorization, peculiarly that of the socially and politically marginalized. However, Khushwant Singh ‘s was the solitary voice in support of exigency as he thought it to be the lone manner out for enforcing disciplined work civilization directed at household planning and slum clearance.[ 16 ]As docket puting stems the formation of public sentiments and the distribution of pros and cons of a peculiar issue. Khushwant Singh ‘s Hagiographas reflect the relevancy of Agenda-setting theory. He takes place on assorted political issues of public involvement and helps in modeling public sentiment for good. For illustration, he is besides against the ruddy tapeism and politicisation of the disposal, peculiarly the constabulary that he feels earned the bad name for hassling the inexperienced person citizens[ 17 ]. He is critical of communal forces, which divides the state and do people lose their humanity. His comments become most affecting in the wake of 1984 anti Sikhs public violences.[ 18 ]Khushwant Singh stands for human rights for common individual peculiarly those who lack political backing and power.
He advocates secularism as a virtuousness in public life ; he besides appreciates secular values highlighted in spiritual Bibles, even though he himself claims to be non spiritual. He is besides against capital penalty as he considers it inappropriate in a civilised society so much so that he is against capital penalty even for terrorists such as Afzal Guru.[ 19 ]He considers the right to imbibe as a personal right of the citizens in which the province must non tamper by enforcing prohibition. He advocates abandoning of a prejudiced attack towards imbibing and the acceptance of a sane and rational attitude towards it.[ 20 ]
A patriot to the nucleus, he writes abundantly on the Independence Day and Republic Day jubilations peculiarly on crushing the retreat as he finds it less showy than the Republic Day Parade.[ 21 ]He besides uses these two occasions to take stock of the advancement made by the state. When he compares Pakistan and India, he feels proud to be an Indian. In political relations, he adopts the way of pragmatism alternatively of blind trueness to any political political orientation. However, he militias his grasp for a peculiar system that ensures ‘socialist ‘ justness in the society. Khushwant Singh acts harmonizing to the traditional ‘fourth estate ‘ impression, covering thoughts of the imperativeness as representative of the populace, critic of authorities, advocator of policy and policy-maker. Therefore, his Hagiographas support ‘Media and Society ‘ theory in this regard.
In position of considerable attending paid to political subjects ( 20.48 % ) in his columns and articles, Khushwant Singh shows a concern for the issues that impinge upon the human conditions both in its single and in its public facets. However, being a editorialist with a difference, Khushwant Singh ‘s write-ups do non follow the form of structured authorship. His attending displacements from thoughts to people and people to ideas a spot excessively fast for any logical analysis. In fact, in none of his column do we happen any cardinal subject, which is expounded meticulously. In this regard, he remains an out and out post-modernist author.
Khushwant Singh ‘s Hagiographas reflect that he frequently protects the ‘official ‘ cultural heritage of a state or society, particularly in instruction and scientific discipline, art and literature. Thus, 21.23 % of the entire subjects are shared by civilization. In civilization, his sub-themes scope from faith to racial favoritism. He writes abundantly on faith and morality, tradition, doctrine, star divination, supernatural, racial favoritism and art. He is a great perceiver of different civilizations as he started series on different communities in India in his The Weekly. He supports typical regional and local discrepancies of cultural look, on evidences of genuineness every bit good as of tradition. Although a self-proclaimed doubter, yet his originative mastermind is profoundly rooted in the ancient Indian faith, which attaches great importance to self-denial, repudiation, embodiment, philosophy of re-birth, jurisprudence of karma and non-violence. Khushwant Singh expresses his point of view on the spiritual patterns, values and rites that have been carried out until modern times. Khushwant Singh admires the thoughts of Adi Shankacharya,[ 22 ]Mahatma Buddha and Guru Nanak Dev. He gives his ain reading of their anthem and instructions and he relates ancient Vedas and Upanishads with modern times.
Religion in its ritualistic signifier is a symbol of corruptness in Khushwant Singh ‘s articles and columns, as he believes it to work in conference with the power construction in society. Khushwant Singh explains that faith maps as an autocratic system with the rich and powerful to stamp down the hapless and disadvantaged categories. No faith – Muslimism, Sikhism, Christianity and Hinduism – has remained immune to perverting influences and they are all corrupting human life and societal establishments alternatively of enriching them, commercialization of topographic points of worship has given the caputs an authorization and privilege to the hurt of spiritual values. Khushwant Singh makes merriment of the people who are dissemblers in spiritual beliefs. In personal and professional life, they are immoral but drama fast ones to delight the Almighty. He quotes a celebrated pair of concern category Sikhs, “ Koor vee asee bolney aan ; Ghat vee asee tolney aan ; Par Sacchey Padshah! Tera Naa vee asee lainey aan ”[ 23 ].
He manifests the ground of importance of faith in our lives by traveling into inside informations of deadly effects of faith. Khushwant Singh has set different ethical criterions by rejecting the credence of God and supernatural, and underscoring the potency of adult male to make a society based on love and good will where every individual has the right to bask all freedoms.[ 24 ]He attempts to weed out the cancerous growing of superstitious notion and blind religion, which regulations out all range for single growing and development, and emphasises a fatalistic, low and inactive attitude.
Khushwant Singh ‘s survey of doctrine, both European and Indian, gives deepness to his plants and a position to his thoughts of adult male and society. Khushwant Singh ‘s hunt for truth is an effort to travel beyond established norms, make a way through the theories of cognition, philosophical guidelines of Eastern and Western thought and germinate a belief, which will partake the good points and yet be a wholly new journey. Khushwant Singh quotes assorted philosophers and minds in his Hagiographas to back up his point of view on assorted philosophical issues like old age, decease and spiritualty. He condemns the pattern of star divination, palm reading, amulets, have oning gemstones for good-luck and yoga in his articles and columns. In the same tone he criticises supernatural in which common adult male believes but Khushwant Singh does non.[ 25 ]Another interesting facet of his Hagiographas on faith depicts that despite known for his authoritative works The History of Sikhs, his columns and Hagiographas do non concentrate much on Sikhism.
Khushwant Singh ‘s return on faith has created the popular perceptual experience of a adult male, who is hedonic, individualistic, and an image breaker. However, a careful reading of his columns and articles shows that behind this character lies the existent person, which is touched upon by the human conditions in different cultural formations. Khushwant Singh ‘s abomination for faith in its ritualistic signifier and grasp for the ageless and humanistic values in the antediluvian faiths shows that the editorialist in him is dead against all signifiers of dissipation of faith into ritual and its development to maintain the common adult male oppressed. In this regard, his doctrine analogues that of Karl Marx who considered ‘religion as opium of multitudes ‘ and as an instrument of development of the weak and the depressed by the opinion established.[ 26 ]However, Khushwant Singh does non show his weltanschaaung in the signifier of a philosophically argued point of position. Bing a post-modernist through and through he lets this doctrine wing off his vesiculation shoot and scoot manner of authorship.
Khushwant Singh ‘s battle with the obscene and the profane has created rather a waver in popular perceptual experience. The usage of semi-naked adult females in his bulb shaped logo has put off many a spoting reader to see him as a author of pornography. The survey reveals merely 5 % of his journalistic plants dealt with sex and that excessively in the context of morality. The titillating imagination used in the logo is more an artistic gambit to pull readers than to prosecute them with capable affair surrounding on the same.
Khushwant Singh is extremely critical of racial favoritism as it is another nexus in the concatenation of development, preceded by casteism and class-consciousness in the Indian society. It breeds a system, which equates race with more rights and installations for a selected group.[ 27 ]
Khushwant Singh ‘s resistance to airing on evidences of race, caste and category bells in with his humanistic mentality on life revealed in his Hagiographas on faith. Readers look at the society with journalist ‘s position and through theirs. Khushwant Singh compels them to believe against the established norms and Orthodox conventions of faith, household, and caste-brotherhood, appreciated the tenor of alterations. However, at no phase does he of all time seek to give the feeling of a philosopher author. His manner remains dianoetic and slackly connected.
For Khushwant Singh, humanistic disciplines and trades merit the same punctilious attending and earnestness as redacting a magazine or newspaper. Khushwant Singh is a great supporter of art in every signifier – be it painting ; be it poetry or any other signifier. He promoted art in every signifier in the diaries he worked for. His journalistic Hagiographas are marked by an accent on the synthesis of the modern and the traditional. Through The Illustrated Weekly of India, he underlines the thought of steering originative end product for enriching societal establishments.[ 28 ]He scans the full art and cultural field to underscore their importance in the development of adult male and society.
Khushwant Singh is rationalist at bosom and carries a strong strong belief for each statement that he makes. Thus, rational subject occupies 19.37 % of his plants. His attack towards reason in all affairs is basically broad. His Hagiographas reveal a happy blending of scientific rationalism and broad humanitarianism. In rational subject, book reappraisals, human behavior, societal behavior, Gandhism, linguistic communication and history are included. He has reviewed countless books during his long calling as a journalist. Khushwant Singh has written maximal book reappraisals in ulterior portion of his calling. He has reviewed books from assorted genres like lifes, autobiographies, fiction, history, faith, art and civilization, poesy, non-fiction and interlingual renditions. Khushwant Singh, being an perceiver of human behavior, the readers experience complexness and diverseness of human behavior that is brought out in his columns. Khushwant Singh satirises people for their wont of seeking to affect others by hook or criminal in societal and personal contexts.[ 29 ]He remarks upon sycophancy,[ 30 ]behavior of the people when they get success in their lives and societal life of the people. He condemns the people who drop names of the well-known personalities to do a grade in the society. In contrast, he confesses that he is a large name dropper yet he hates others who use it for their bets. Khushwant Singh condemns people who indulge in boast.[ 31 ]
Social and political concerns in his Hagiographas amply show that he has been a great supporter and follower of Mahatma Gandhi. He supports Gandhi ‘s rule of non-violence but he has an wholly different attack towards celibacy.[ 32 ]Celibacy is an issue Gandhiji followed throughout his life whereas Khushwant Singh is in dissension with Gandhi ‘s negation of sex but he leaves it on personal want of an person and he himself has celebrated sex in his novels.
Bing a celebrated novelist and a journalist Khushwant Singh shows great concern towards the usage of linguistic communication in communicating. He remarks upon profusion and use of English,[ 33 ]Hindi, Urdu and other regional linguistic communications of India. Khushwant Singh realises the linguistic communication issue merits a serious attending, since a coevals has grown which is handicapped by deficiency of proficiency in any linguistic communication.
Khushwant Singh ‘s pre-occupation in his calling with memoirs grew into popular entreaty. His articles are genuinely a mirror of his clip, looking as docudrama of events and people around him. Data indicates that when Khushwant Singh started his journalistic calling memoirs occupied 22.91 % of the subjects. His memoirs include topographic points, travelogues and profiles of the people he met during his life-time. He writes about the topographic points he has visited. Some are beautiful topographic points of historical importance or non so of import like Patna, Bombay, Syria, Germany and Amritsar. He describes the topographic point in such a mode that it creates a image in the heads of readers – good or bad. Khushwant Singh excessively travelled to the figure of topographic points around the Earth in the class of journalistic calling and he presents the record of his travels in his columns and articles. Bing caste in post-modernist manner Khushwant Singh seldom sticks to the 1 topographic point that he is depicting. He frequently flies off at a tangent from the description of a topographic point to facets like economic system, history, civilization and even single memoirs. Khushwant Singh has ability to associate the modern-day issues with his ain experience and he turns nostalgic about the topographic points, people and events of his vernal yearss. He is singular for his great scope of experience, which offers a great assortment of puting, character and consequence.
Khushwant Singh met and interacted with a big figure of people that includes politicians, essayists, movie famous persons, societal workers, friends and relations, spiritual gurus, common people, co-workers, journalists, separationists, academicians and philosophers. Some of the people he has met have a long permanent feeling on his head. In his columns, he gives a lively history of some of these. He is able to portray the personality of the concerned individuals in such a manner that they come to us alive and kicking as 3-dimensional characters. Khushwant Singh ‘s unfavorable judgments and remarks on personalities aim at making the humanistic ideal. His originative art is preoccupied, non so much with the person as an stray entity or with society. He tries to maintain the balance of sociological presentation and the virtuousnesss of societal analysis. Khushwant Singh militias esteem for those who non merely can accomplish a balance between past and present, but besides put their thoughts in action. He admires leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi.[ 34 ]He portrays the interior struggle and values predominating in the modern-day political scenario. However, there are prejudices in his pick of political events and leaders. He chooses a few leaders repeatedly and writes about them in his column peculiarly members of Nehru-Gandhi household. The media provides their audience with a supply of information, images, narratives and feelings, sometimes harmonizing to anticipated demands, sometimes guided by its ain intents. This world will ever be to some extent selected and constructed and there will be certain prejudices. This shows that Khushwant Singh as a journalist does non reflect world ; he filters and shapes the information he gets through existent life experiences ; and secondly, he concentrates on a few issues and topics that leads the populace to comprehend those issues as more of import than other issues.
Khushwant Singh ‘s pre-occupation with famous persons is non something surprising. Having been in the midst of political action in the state for more than six decennaries, he came near to most of the political histrions in modern India. His remarks on them uncover his foibles, likes and disfavors, a feature, which places him in the galaxy of post-modernist authors for whom affectional grasp of persons is more of import than conceptional one.
Although readers for get downing trivia news media in Indian journalistic landscape recognition Khushwant Singh, yet it forms merely 2.23 % of the full journalistic plants by him. Khushwant Singh relates fiddling issues to his and readers ‘ everyday life in such a manner that they seem really much relevant to the readers. The scope of fiddling subjects varies from animate beings to failure of visible radiation,[ 35 ]from enjoyment of pedicure to contend for ugly looking animate beings.[ 36 ]Khushwant Singh has for decennaries ruled in the heads of readers as the maestro of trifle. But, a careful analysis of his columns and articles as undertaken in the survey reveals the pantie attending he pays to trivia.
Seen in entirety, Khushwant Singh emerges as a humanist who likes to near life from the cavity of his bosom than the cerebellum. His concern for the human values, equality and self-respect of human life is expressed in a manner that tends to deflect attending from the issues being discussed and divert attending to the non-essentials. As a consequence, making a misconception in the heads of the readers about his pre-occupations as a journalist. However, his manner is the really kernel of his authorship and his stature as a journalist as it helps to jar people out of their sensed impressions and take to his Hagiographas like a fish takes to H2O. In fact, his manner is celebratory and post-modernist at one time. In fact, one of the trademarks of post-modernist authorship is that it celebrates the fragmental and the ‘partial ‘ . Khushwant Singh ‘s Hagiographas give ample grounds of this celebratory tone which at times even boundary lines on the rambunctious and strident, something that connects him to the native dirt of Punjab, which is famed for its Bohemian attitude to life.