Key arguments in the excerpt Essay Essay
First. Lyotard argues against construing the ‘post’ in the term ‘postmodernist’ in the sense of simple sequence. Modernism and Postmodernism are neither clearly chronologically identifiable periods where the ulterior succeeds the former. nor does Postmodernism bespeak any new beginning after a clear and precise interruption from the yesteryear. In fact. the really thought of such a chronology which would let a new beginning or a complete interruption from the yesteryear is itself typically modern.
Using Freudian psychoanalytic theory. Lyotard argues that this interruption from the yesteryear is really a repression of the yesteryear. Consequently. elements from the past support reappearing once more and once more in the signifier of citations and repeats in the work of modern-day creative person. Second. Lyotard explains the typically postmodern disbelief towards all catholicities. particularly towards meta-narratives of advancement and emancipation which the West has used for centuries in order to proclaim high quality and legitimize legion inhumanenesss and subjugations.
As Lyotard points out. the thought of advancement ‘was rooted in the certainty that development of the humanistic disciplines. engineering. cognition and autonomy would be profitable to mankind as a whole’ . However. two centuries of such advancement taking us to ‘Auschwitz’ in the name of human emancipation have eventually destabilized our religion on the meta-narrative. Even. development of the techno-sciences giving rise to legion diseases and sophisticated arms can no longer be called advancement.
Furthermore. these developments seem to go on non in conformity to human demands but wholly imperviable of human demands. The postmodern adult male seems to be inexorably drawn into a more and more complex status as a consequence of these developments. Finally. Lyotard identifies avant-gardism as a motion within modernism that however functioned to interrogate and analyse modernism. This harmonizing to Lyotard is the existent map of Postmodernism. the analyzing and reflecting of the presuppositions of all catholicities and meta-narratives including those of modernism.
Postmodernism Postmodernism harmonizing to Lyotard. is characterized by a intuition towards the Modernist thoughts of advancement. reason and scientific objectiveness: “…there is no longer a skyline of universalization. of general emancipation before the eyes of the postmodern man…” In fact. for Lyotard Postmodernism is defined by an resistance to all universals. meta-narratives and generalizations. Lyotard besides argues against construing Postmodernism as a philosophical stance that chronologically succeeds Modernism or is opposed to Modernism.
On the contrary. Lyotard proposes that Postmodernism is embedded within the construct of Modernism and non outside it. Using Freudian Psychoanalytic theory. Lyotard claims that Postmodernism is a reappraisal of the extents and restrictions of the Modern Movement. It is a Modernism that is witting of itself and that continuously engages in soul-searching. In the alleged avant-gardist motions normally associated with Modernism. Lyotard locates the seeds of Postmodernism. Bricolage
In the essay under consideration Lyotard develops the thought of ‘bricolage’ to account for the high frequence of citations of elements from the yesteryear in postmodern architecture as noted by the Italian designer Victorio Grigotti. For Lyotard. Bricolage is ‘the multiple citation of elements taken from earlier manners or periods. classical and modern ; neglect for the environment ; and so on…” In the essay. ‘bricolage’ is identified by Lyotard as one of the specifying features of postmodern art.
Postmodern art and architecture is full of citations from the yesteryear. Elementss from past manners. past architectures are continually being repeated or quoted in modern-day plants without respect for their fitness in the environment. These citations might be done with an air of cynicism and sarcasm. but however. for the postmodern creative person it is a agency of analysing or interrogating assorted differences in manner or period. category or gender within a individual work of art. Lyotard employs Freudian psychoanalytic theory to explicate ‘bricolage’ .
He claims that a new age involves the repression of the past and as in Freudian theory the repressed yesteryear appear and reappear through dreams. as it happens in Modernism. In the postmodernist instance nevertheless. it is instead a witting working through. an analysis or contemplation of the extents and restrictions of these past guesss. The postmodern creative person therefore produces his art by consciously borrowing from a diverse scope of manners or periods that happens to be available without any consideration for their original intent or the environment in order to interrogate the cogency of these manners.