Job Design and Work Diversity Essay
One of the HARM oleos is to have an impact on the management performance of job design and work force diversity. Due to the definition of Job design, it helps to defining how work will be performed and what impact will be given in performance. On the other hand, work force diversity also has impact on HARM to managing people’s similarities and differences. The alma of this paper Is to conduct a literature review on what role Job design and work force diversity play In attempts to Improve Individual and organizational performance.
Job Design In terms of Job design, many aspects of HARM formulation address how the work gets one. As said by Gar and Ratios (2006), HARM has become one of the internal factors of the organization that play a vital role in motivating the performance of employees. It is an essential part of every manager’s responsibility to make sure the employee has the right knowledge, skills and abilities to perform their job. The purpose of Job design is to discuss what Is needed from the Job and the employee. There are four types of approaches that can be used in Job design.
They are the mechanistic approach, the motivational approach, the biological approach, and the perceptual approach (Neo, Hollowness, Gerhard, & Wright, 2010). Studies from Hickman & Lawyer (1971) and Hickman & Lolled (1976,1980) has Indicated one of the model of how job design affects employee reactions is the individual-job design (2005) also has recognized that “the JACM has had a persistent influence on work design practices and has accumulated an impressive amount of related research” (cited in Goers, 2007, p. 38). Another aspect that has been discussed is ergonomics, which also plays a vital role in Job design and influencing the motivational level of employees. Designing Job ergonomically will help employee to void musculoskeletal injuries and awkward postures, also has a safe working condition (Gar & Ratios, 2006). Based on research by Allan and Brave (2007), Job design and work routines have been shown strong effects on reflexivity, learning processes, and outcomes such as effectiveness, productivity, and Job satisfaction.
Job design has made positive impact for group processes and individual performances. Earlier studies (Fairfield and Roth, 1951) said that global satisfaction has reflected a generalized or an overall evaluation of an employee toward his/her Job (cited in Primping & Wilson, 2013). Evans (1969), Fisher (1980), Irons et al. (1989) and Brown & Peterson (1993) have indicated three ways to measure Job satisfaction. They are global, narrow and multidimensional measurements (cited in Primping & Wilson, 2013).
Although Job design sounds as a common problem in every company, it holds key to developing and maintaining a competitive advantage. Manager has the important role to know and understand the entire workflow process in their work unit to ensure that the process going effectiveness and efficiency. Wallach’s (2005) pointed out that the basic premise of the concept of performance management is great performance, whether by an individual or by a group is very unlikely to happen on its own.
Workforce Diversity Stockades and Crosby (2004) have defined diversity management as “a voluntary and planned program designed to make differences between employees a source of creativity, complementarily and greater effectiveness” (cited in Lazar et al. 2012, p. 512). Diversity is viewed as a key to strengthen the human and intellectual capital of business through effective communication and negotiation (Koru ; Washington, 2012). Moreover, diversity has becoming a great factor for recruitment, radioactivity, relationship, and competitiveness of the organizations.
There are many advantages that come up from workforce diversity. Friedman (2005) and Guppy (2008) concurred that a diverse workforce can provide a fabulous advantage by employing new idea and communication skills, thus providing diversity thoughts from employee that will give better result in solutions and decision-making (cited in Koru ; Washington, 2012). Education and communication has become the key to transform the behavior of the employees in terms of embracing and accepting diversity.
According to Kinds (2003), he has categorized the benefits that organization can achieve for creating a diverse workforce, such as organization can provide better service because they understand customer’s needs (Weanling & Palm-Rivals, 2000); diversity will help organization to enter the international area (Socio, 1998); can enhances creativity and innovation (Adler, 1997; Jackson et al. , 1992); produces competitive advantages (Coleman, 2002; Jackson et al. , 1992); organization can succeed at diversity if they have initiative to create, manage and Jackson et al. 992). On the other hand, the literature also has explained that the perception of differences thought among employees could produce negative impact within the group (Lazar, 2013). William and Reilly (1998) pointed out that mismanaged diversity initiatives and implementations could negatively affect organization’s performance and processes (cited in Bergen, 2005). In addition, Devote (1999) and Est. et al. (1995) argued that managers might be faced the losses due to personnel and work productivity and negative attitudes and behaviors from the employee.
Therefore, before designing an idea for managing diversity, it is necessary to define and analyses clearly all of the kinds of differences that the organization needs to manage (Lazar, 2013). Manager should be aware of the values of understanding, appreciating, and respecting human and cultural differences to be effective in interacting across cultural organizations (Koru ; Washington, 2012). Furthermore, it is critically important for managers to understand the importance of workforce diversity and effective communication in achieving the objectives of organizations and academic institutions.
Conclusion Both of Job design and workforce diversity have equal impact in attempt of HARM. Job design helps managers to developing and maintaining a competitive advantage in organization. Beside that, managers need to know and understand clearly the entire workflow process in their unit. The other advantages of Job design can identify employee’s knowledge and skills. It will help managers to determine employee’s position and Job precisely. On the other hand, diversity also has important role in HARM. Organization can have many advantages from implementing diversity into their equines.
For example to enhance creativity and innovation in the organization and have better idea for decision-making. As a manager, it is necessary to analyses and define the differences in the organization that needs to manage.