jeopardy study guide

post hoc
this fallacy involves succession in time
false dilemna
this fallacy says there are only two options, though this is not the case
strawman
this fallacy turns a real position into a caricature
complex question
this fallacy asks a question that makes assumptions
affirming the consequent
this fallacy is an invalid form of modus ponens
modus tollens
find the deductive argument form:
if its raining, the park is closed. the park is not closed. Therefore, it’s not raining
hypothetical syllogism
find the deductive argument form:
if Jeremy steals the money, he will go to jail. If Jeremy goes to jail, his family will suffer. Therefore, if Jeremy steals the money, his family will suffer
modus ponens
find the deductive argument form:
if spot barks, a burglar is in the house. spot is barking. therefore, a burglar is in the house
dilemma
find the deductive argument form:
consumers either increase or cut back on spending. if consumers increase spending, then inflation will get worse. If consumers cut back on spending, then there will be a recession
disjunctive syllogism
find the deductive argument form:
either ralph walked the dog, or he stayed home. He didn’t walk the dog. Therefore, he stayed home.
strong
valid, sound, strong, reliable:
a reliable argument must already be this
valid
valid, sound, strong, reliable:
this means that if the premises are true, so is the conclusion
sound
valid, sound, strong, reliable:
the sun revolves around the earth, or the earth revolves around the sun. the sun does not revolve around the earth. Therefore, the earth revolves around the sun.
valid
valid, sound, strong, reliable:
if buffalo is the capital of new York, then buffalo is in New York. Therefore, Buffalo is in New York
strong
valid, sound, strong, reliable:
the window is broken. there are muddy footprints all over the floor. some valuables are missing. someone must have broken in and burglarized my place
comma splice
sentence structure problem:
this is when two independent clauses are joined with only a comma
fused sentence
sentence structure problem:
this is when two independent clauses are simply put together
run-on sentence
sentence structure problem:
I can stay at school or I can go home
fused sentence
sentence structure problem:
my cat buster loves to nap on warm appliances when he sleeps on top of the television, his tail swipes the screen like a windshield wiper
comma splice
sentence structure problem:
at the back of the classroom, nina sat with her arms crossed, glaring at her teacher, Mr beane, her body language indicated that English was her least favorite subject.
linked premises
these sorts of premises work together to support the conclusion
sub conclusion/ sub argument
if you find the word “thus” in the middle of an argument, you probably have one of these
background rates
these things can tell you just how significant examples really are
dictionary definitions
good definitions don’t always require this
loaded language, non sequitur, and overlooking alternatives
these three fallacies often apply to other, more specific fallacies
false
true or false:
if an argument uses a fallacy, it is false
false
a deductive argument with true premises and a true conclusion is sound
true
ad populum is a bad appeal to authority
false
false dilemmas never follow the deductive argument form of dilemma
false
arguments that deny the consequent almost always overlook alternatives
not
fallacious or not? identify
if it is a witch, then it can burn. if it can burn, then it is made of wood. therefore, if it is a witch then it is made of wood
fallacious: overgeneralizing
fallacious or not? identify
people are not good to each other. I once saw someone kick a homeless person
fallacious: ad hominem
fallacious or not? identify
how can you make a case for vegetarianism while you are eating chicken wings
fallacious: ad misericordiam
fallacious or not? identify
I know the exam is graded based on performance, but you should give me an A. My cat has been sick, my car broke down and ive had a cold, so it was really hard for me to study
fallacious: denying the antecedent
fallacious or not? identify
if cheese isn’t bread, then bread isn’t butter. cheese is bread. therefore, bread is butter
invalid
valid or invalid:
if crime is increasing, then our nation has abandoned God. Our nation has abandoned god
valid
valid or invalid:
if it is cold, then I will stay inside. I am outside. therefore, it is not cold
invalid
valid or invalid:
if George gets plenty of rest, his cold will get better. George didn’t get plenty of rest. therefore, his cold did not get better
invalid
valid or invalid;
we can light the fire, or we can freeze. we lit the fire. therefore, we did not freeze
valid
valid or invalid:
if cheese isn’t bread, then bread isn’t butter. Bread is butter. therefore, cheese is bread