Jean-Paul Sartre Essay
The Existentialist position separates into two statements. both of which the writer Richard Wright may back up. In the talk. “Existentialism is Humanism. ” by Jean Paul Sartre. existential philosophy is the intent of mankind’s being interruptions into two political orientations ; Atheist Existentialism. which conveys that man’s being comes before he realizes his intent or kernel. and Christian Existentialism. the belief that God or higher powers foresees man’s kernel before he exists.
The novel. Native Son. by Richard Wright. the supporter Bigger Thomas is a nineteen-year-old adult male life in the hapless community of the Black Belt who subsequently kills the girl. Mary. of his white employer. Mr. Dalton and flights from gaining control when he the bulls find the remains. Bigger displays the Atheist Existentialism position. where he goes by life as an unfastened book. waiting to secure his kernel in life. As he progresses throughout the novel. Bigger supports the Atheist position of torment. forsaking. and desperation as he strives to happen his kernel in life.
Although few may reason that Native Son supports the Christian Existentialism position of kernel before bing. the bulk of the novel supports the Atheist Existentialism of being before kernel. The reader sees through Bigger’s actions and picks that he does non follow a preset way set by a higher power that chooses how he lives. This demonstrates that Bigger merely exists before he finds his kernel in life. In Sartre’s talk. he explains. in support of Atheist Existentialism. that mankind’s intent is merely a digest of his actions. He defines the political orientation as “existence comes before its essence” ( Sartre 10 ) .
The “existence” suggests that adult male is made without purpose and is get downing every bit merely populating. Without a God. there is no set aspiration or predestination for world. and adult male is merely rolling about in hunt of intent or ground for being. This supports “before its essence” in which the talker suggests that as worlds live out their lives adult male comes to specify himself through non a shaper but by an individual’s actions and determinations. An person is nil but what he makes of himself. He does non hold a definition before birth nor does society form him.
However. an person is gratuitous to determine his intent and desires. Through the character Bigger. Wright supports the Atheist Existentialism as Bigger tries to happen the intent for his life. In this scene. Bigger kills Mary Dalton. a white miss from a really outstanding household and attempts to conceal the grounds by firing her organic structure in a furnace. He is now on the manner back to the house to look into to see if the organic structure burned all the manner. Before Bigger enters the house. he feels “a assurance. a comprehensiveness. and a freedom ; his whole life [ is ] caught up in a supreme and meaningful act” ( Wright 338 ) .
The “confidence. a comprehensiveness. and a freedom” propose how he supports the Atheist Existentialism as he feels free from a directed way. He is described as “caught up in a supreme and meaningful act” which paints Bigger as specifying himself through his actions and has been populating a life without any significance. Throughout the fresh Richard Wright portrays more grounds back uping Sartre’s political orientation through Bigger. Bigger has merely left his girlfriend’s house and is now returning to the Dalton’s. As he walks. he thinks of how he will be populating this new life of his.
From the minute he felt in control over how he wanted to populate. Bigger “ [ feels ] that he [ has ] his fate in his appreciation. He [ is ] more alive so he [ can ] of all time retrieve holding been” ( Wright 420 ) . The phrase “feels” that “his fate in his grasp” Wright connotes that Bigger is following the Atheist Existentialism by holding control over his fate and taking how he lives. The description of his life being “more alive” shows that he is now free to take his actions an ability that world is capable of making.
Wright supports the Atheist Existentialism in which adult male is non predestined before birth and that through Bigger portrays that adult male is accountable for his fate. From the Atheist Existentialism point of view. Richard Wright supports Sartre’s Atheist position of worlds being in anguish through Bigger in Native Son. In his talk. Sartre explains that as a human being. mankind’s being concerns all of world therefore one is in anguish. He states how adult male “is non merely taking what he will be … [ but ] at the same clip [ is ] a legislator [ that decides ] for whole of world.
Sartre describes adult male “is non merely taking what he will be. ” he once more states the chief political orientation where adult male gets to make up one’s mind for his life but at a monetary value. Sartre utilizes “legislator” and “for whole of mankind” emphasizing the importance of one’s actions that influences everyone. Sartre puts accent on man’s consciousness of his milieus before his actions. What one adult male does. can impact everyone around him. This sways adult male to engender a positive impact to mankind. In the novel. Bigger supports the thought of adult male being in torment as his being and actions cause a Domino consequence to the destiny of others.
As Bigger escapes from being captured by the rabble of white police officers. he overhears two of his people knocking him for doing them to endure job-loss. He overhears that “Bigger Thomas made me lose mah job… . He made the white folks think we’s all jus’ like him” ( Wright 361 ) . By impeaching Bigger with “lose mah job” and “think we’s all jus’ like him” Bigger is in anguish because he causes their job-loss and how the Whites view Negroes now. Bigger’s slaying of Mary causes an elaboration making the Negroes of his community through lay-offs and abetment of public violences in the Black Belt.
Throughout the novel. Bigger displays more grounds in support to anguish. As he escapes from the white police officers. his pride and haughtiness disables him from detecting the universe around him until he steals a Times newspaper. While he reads the newspaper. Bigger notices in a column “RAID 1. 000 NEGRO HOMES. INCIPIENT RIOT QUELLED AT 47TH AND HALSTED” ( Wright 367 ) . Through “raid 1. 000 negro places. ” Wright suggests that Bigger’s offense non merely affects those around him but leads to the raiding of 1. 000 places of his ain people unfair and without warrant.
Bigger’s one offense instigates a “incipient riot” that enforces the torment in Bigger as his actions amplifies to a monolithic consequence on the whole Black Belt as the Whites scour through every edifice. place. and vicinity. Wright supports the anguish political orientation through Bigger’s slaying making convulsion and pandemonium in his community. In respects to the thought of anguish. Native Son displays the atheist sub-idea of forsaking throughout the novel. In simple footings. the thought of God is nullified and adult male lives without alibi.
Sartre in his talk describes abandonment as “God does non be. and … [ adult male must ] pull the effects of his absence right to the end” ( Sartre 13 ) . By stipulating that “God does non be. ” adult male is merely alone and has a freedom of actions. Man is non restricted to a predetermined way because there is no God. However. Sartre points out that adult male is inclined “to draw the effects of his absence right to the end” proposing that adult male abides in his ain actions and picks. and that he can non fault anyone else but himself. Wright illustrates Bigger
absorbing the forsaking thought that he takes full duty for the decease of Mary Dalton. In the scene Bigger kills Mary Dalton and burns her organic structure to cover the grounds. He contemplates how “She was dead and he had killed her. He [ is ] a liquidator. a Negro liquidator. a black liquidator. He had killed a white woman” ( Wright 145 ) . By linking “She was dead and he had killed her” Bigger acknowledges his offense and enforces it by taking duty. He continues with “He is a liquidator. a Negro liquidator. a black murderer” Bigger has broken the peace between the Whites and the inkinesss and takes recognition for his tegument colour.
By saying “He had killed a white woman” connotes how Bigger claims the effects for interrupting the societal tabu of society and the punishments he will confront against the white community. Sartre justifies how adult male lives without the presence of God. and he is unable to fault a higher power for what has befallen on him but must asseverate complete duty for effects. In other instances. this besides relates to the fact that adult male is able to take full recognition for the wagess he partakes because of his actions.
Richard Wright exhibits extra grounds back uping forsaking through Bigger as he recognizes that without God he is capable of specifying himself and decides what way he takes. In the scene. Bigger is at place and realizes the significance of his intent. Bigger has overcome society and “he had murdered and had created a new life for himself. It [ is ] something that [ is ] all his own…” ( Wright 167 ) . The writer states “he [ has ] murdered. ” are grounds of forsaking as Bigger accomplishes something meaningful in all his life.
Bigger “ [ has ] created a new life for himself” suggests how this slaying marks a divergence from merely bing to populating with kernel. Bigger once more takes recognition for the slaying and embraces the thought of Abandonment. This merely means that he has created new life from this one slaying and will steer to a new manner of way. However. due to the wages of doing a new life for himself. Bigger is besides restraint to the way that he has made. the way of being a black liquidator of a outstanding white adult female. Bigger will hold to accept the effects of killing Mary subsequently on in Book Three ; Fate.
Native Son depicts how adult male is in Despair in support to Atheist Existentialism. Despair states how adult male merely sets one’s restrictions and ends based his capablenesss. Sartre defines desperation as “we bound ourselves to a trust upon that which is within our volitions. or within the amount of the chances which render our action feasible” ( Sartre 16 ) . Using “reliance” and “probabilities” Sartre connotes that adult male sets ends within his ain appreciation. Stating how man’s ends are determined “within our wills” that “render our action executable. ” Sartre suggests that adult male may put a end so recognize its trouble ; he may slake to a lower aim or bound.
Sartre enforces that adult male is in control of his ain restrictions. but sometimes adult male will either be belittled by obstructions or strive for the highest ends. Through Bigger. Richard Wright besides depicts Despair as Bigger realizes that he has no limitations. Bigger prepares to go forth his household and thinks back to how he lives his life. He contemplates how “He was outside his household now. over and beyond them ; they were incapable of even believing that he had done such a deed” ( Wright 167 ) . Wright utilizes the words “beyond” and “incapable” to put accent on a “ceiling” of outlooks on Bigger.
Bigger describes his effort with “done such a deed” to imply how he has done the impossible in his society. Peoples in Despair each obtain a end or finish in life and strive for it. puting that par they desire to make. However. when obstructions emerge or disheartenments originate. people may cut down that dream to what they deem “manageable” to them. Throughout the novel. Wright includes extra grounds that substantiates towards Despair in Bigger as he certifies that he has no restraints towards his end.
In the novel. Bigger gets ready to go forth his household to return to the Dalton’s house to detect the furnace and ponders over his achievement. He cogitates how “Now that the ice was broken. could he non make other things? What was at that place to halt him” ( Wright 168 ) . By saying. “the ice was broken. ” Bigger turns a new foliage in life through his achievement and obtains the kernel of his entity from the slaying of Mary. He has passed his bounds and “could he non make other things” suggests that Bigger will go on to replace his new fate by populating his life and accomplishing the highest ends possible.
Wright continues with the rhetorical inquiry “what was at that place to halt him” to expose that Bigger has no bounds now and will make for the highest aims in his life. There is no ceiling in Bigger’s being and comes to a realisation that there is nil hindering on his way of slaying and pride. Bigger supports the thought of Despair non merely through the constitution of an expressed end. but to the point where he has no bounds to his capablenesss. He finds that this slaying has given him a intent worth endeavoring for in his being and that nil will stop his finding of accomplishing his end.
Sartre depicts adult male does non merely do ends to merely take down them to an “obtainable” degree and announce this false accomplishment. but he makes ends and perseveres for the inchoate purpose in their life. Through Native Son. Richard Wright supports the Atheist Existentialism through Bigger as he exists until specifying himself through the slaying of Mary Dalton. He lives in anguish by impacting non merely one individual but besides his whole community by his actions and forsaking in that he blames no 1 and credits no 1 but himself.
Last. Bigger supports desperation when he finds out his intent through the action of killing Mary and realisation that he is illimitable amongst work forces. Being of worlds portrays an vague hill of clay ; adult male merely chooses how he desires to determine it through his actions modeling it into a distinguishable and purposeful chef-d’oeuvre. whether or non good or detrimental is up to adult male himself. Work Cited Sartre. Jean Paul. “Existentialism is Humanism. ” Lecture. 1946. Accessed online. Google. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Marxists. org/reference/archive/sartre/works/exist/sartre. htm 3/20/13. Wright. Richard. Native Son. New York: HarperCollinsPublishers. 2005.