Jasper Chemistry Fall Exam Review

Law of Multiple Proportions
Same elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds
Law of Definite Proportions
Need same proportions of mass to form the same compound
Volumetric pipette and volumetric flask
Most precise for one specific amount
Graduated pipette and cylinder
Best for all purposes (many markings)
% error
(Average value – accepted value)/Accepted value x 100
Sig fig criteria
Recorded numbers,
Middle zeroes
Trailing zeroes to right of decimal
Scientific notation numbers
Non-sig fig criteria
Leading zeroes
Trailing zeroes to left of decimal
Base units
Time – seconds
Length – meters
Mass – kilograms
Temperature – Kelvin
How to graph density
Y axis = volume, x axis = mass
Billiard ball model
Atom – smallest unit, can’t be split up, solid, homogenous, indestructible, cannot be created
Discredited Democritus with theory of 4 elements
Redid Democritus’ ideas
Discovered electrons with negatively charged light + magnets
Plum pudding model
Discovered nuclei with gold foil experiment
Electrons orbit nucleus
Bohr model
Discovered neutrons
Neutral charge, same mass as protons
Discovered radioactivity
Radiation, nuclear medicine
Weighted average
Abundance % x isotopic atomic mass, add
Whole numbers mass gains/loses energy in
Ground state
Electrons are at lowest possible energy level
Invented Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom
Quantum numbers
1 – Energy levels
2 – Orbital shape
3 – Magnetic orientation
4 – Spin
Aufbau Principle
Electrons fill lowest energy levels first
Pauli Exclusion Principle
2 electrons of opposite spin per orbital
Hund’s Rule
Parallel spins in each orbital before pairing up
Electron configuration exceptions
Copper, silver, chromium
D half filled before filling s
Atomic radius
Decreases left to right
Increases top to bottom
Ionic radius
Decreases left to right based on whether anion/cation
Increases top to bottom
Increases left to right
Decreases top to bottom
Ionization energy
Increases left to right
Decreases top to bottom
Metallic properties
Further left = more metallic
Listed 23 elements
Elements by atomic mass
Law of Octaves
Periodic table by mass
Predicted unknowns
Same as Mendeleev
Arranged by atomic number
Representatives metals
A groups
Transition metals
B groups
Metallic bonding
Delocalized electrons
Sea of electrons
Electrostatic attraction
Metal conductivity
Heat speeds up Sea of Electrons
Metal atoms slide past each other
Molar mass
Ratio of atoms in an alloy
Ratio x molar mass = amount
Crystal lattice structure
Form of ionic bonds
Formula unit
Ionic bonding unit
Electrostatic attraction
Creates ionic bonds
Van der Waals forces
Weak intermolecular attraction
Measurement of covalent compounds
Resonance structures
Can have different covalent compound setups
Covalent bond strength and length
Determined by number of bonds
More bonds = shorter and stronger
Expanded octet
Atoms that want more than 8 valence
S, P, Ar, Te, Xe
Acids with oxyanion + hydrogen
Polyatomic with oxygen
Spectator ions
Do not participate in reactions because they are aqueous
Net ionic equations
Precipitates only
Total ionic equations
Precipitates + aqueous
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