Jarrod’s Chapter 10 Chemistry Vocabulary

Atmosphere (atm)
A unit of pressure equal to 760 torr; 1 atm = 101.325 kPa.
Avogadro’s Hypothesis
A statement that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.
Avogadro’s Law
A statement that the volume of a gas maintained at a constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas.
A united of pressure equal to 105 Pa.
Boyle’s Law
A law stating that at constant temperature, the product of the volume and pressure of a given amount of has is a constant.
Charles’s Law
A law stating that at constant pressure, the volume of a given quantity of gas is proportional to absolute temperature.
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
A law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gasses is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone.
The spreading of one substance through a space occupied by one or more other substances.
The escape of a gas through an orifice or hole.
Gas Constant (R)
The constant of proportionality in the ideal-gas equation.
Graham’s Law
A law stating that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight.
Ideal Gas
A hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior is completely described by the ideal-gas equation.
Ideal-Gas Equation
An equation of state for gases that embodies Boyke’s law, Charles’s law, and Avogadro’s Hypothesis in the form PV = nRT.
Kinetic-molecular Theory
A set of assumptions about the nature of gasses. These assumptions when translated into mathematical form, yield the ideal-gas equation.
Mean Free Path
The average distances traveled by a gas molecule between collisions.
Mole Fraction
The ratio of the number of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles of all components; abbreviated X, with a subscript to identify the component.
Partial Pressures
The pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture.
Pascals (Pa)
The SI unit of pressure: 1 Pa = 1N/m2.
A measure of the force exerted on a unit area. In chemistry, pressure is often expressed in unites of atmospheres (atm) or torr; 760 Torr = 1 atm; in SI units pressure is expressed in pascals.
Root-mean-square (rms) Speed (?)
The square root of the average of the squared speeds of the gas molecules in a gas sample.
Standard Atmospheric Pressure
Defined as 760 torr or, in SI units, 101.325 kPa.
Standard Temperature and Pressure
Defined as 0oC and 1 atm pressure; frequently used as reference conditions for a gas.
A unit of pressure (1 torr = 1 mm Hg).
Van Der Waals Equation
An equation of state for nonideal gases that is based on adding corrections to the ideal-gas equations. The correction terms account for intermolecular foreces of attraction and for the volumes occupied by the gas molecules themselves.
Gaseous state of any substance that normally exists as a liquid or solid.
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