Jails Old And New Sociology Essay Essay
With the coming of civilisation and of all time bettering societies, adult male has found the demand for several invariables. The demands for shelter, nutrient and security have been merely a few of these constantsaˆ¦as has the demand for captivity of some of those members of society that have chosen non to follow the regulations that a peculiar society has deemed as necessary. For those members, gaols and prisons were built to keep people before or after a strong belief, it is non meant to be a lasting halt for those convicted, merely a proxy.
The first gaol built was believed to be in 1166, ordered by King Henry II of England, from there gaols spread throughout Europe but changed in range and size over clip. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) Workhouses and poorhouses were developed in the 15th and 16th centuries in England where sheriffs took the function of oversing drifters, the hapless and the mentally ill. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) These alleged gaols were non sanitized and had unhealthy conditions for the captives. This caught the attending of eighteenth century reformists. One such reformist was English sheriff John Howard. In 1779, England ‘s Parliament passed the four gaol reforms that Howard proposed: secure and healthful constructions, gaol reviews, riddance of fees, and an accent on reforming captives. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 )
The first gaol in the United States was the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia, built in 1773 ; it housed wrongdoers without respect to sex, age, or discourtesy. The Philadelphia Quakers had wanted the Walnut Street Jail to be a topographic point where inmates reformed themselves through contemplation and compunction, but shortly after its gap, it turned into a “ promiscuous scene of unrestricted intercourse, cosmopolitan public violence and orgy ” . ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) On October 5, 1835, the Walnut Street Jail closed and those captives were transported to another installation. By the stopping point of the nineteenth century, most metropoliss across the United States had gaols to keep individuals expecting test and to penalize convicted criminals. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) So, what has changed in the gaol population and constructions since they were foremost built? Back in the twenty-four hours, captives were treated inhumane, beaten, flogged, and even hung for their offenses. In today ‘s gaol society, those types of intervention are nil but a minute in history. There are Torahs regulating the intervention of captives and captives now have “ rights ” on how they are treated. The 8th Amendment, ratified in 1791, protects individuals convicted of a offense to non hold inordinate bond or mulcts imposed, nor to hold cruel and unusual penalty inflicted. ( Head ) I tend to somewhat disagree with this due to some individuals offenses are so horrid that they deserve mulcts and/or cruel and unusual penalty, I mean look what some of those felons do to their victims! I think they deserve the same intervention as they gave those victims, but that is merely my personal sentiment.
The design and construction of the gaols have besides changed. Jails have changed throughout history, and have been through four stages of design, First-Generation, Second-Generation, Third-Generation and Fourth-Generation.
First-Generation gaols were designed back in the eighteenth century, and were called ‘linear design ” . In this design, captives lived in cells or residence halls. The cells lined up in the corridors and the inmate supervising was minimum. Staff would walk the corridors and would non be able to see into the cell until they were right up on it. The thought of this type of design was to maintain prevent inmates from seeking to get away and to maintain the staff safe. I would depict this type of gaol scene as stray. The ruin to this type of puting is no type of societal contact with anyone unless a battle broke. This was non a solution to what needed to be done in order for the captives to “ reform ” . These types of gaols were more like lone parturiency, which over clip would literally drive a individual insane.
The Second-Generation gaols emerged in the 1960 ‘s to replace old, rundown linear gaols and supply staff officers to detect inmates in a cardinal zone or better known as a control booth, of the gaol. The construct of the second-generation gaol was for staff to be centralized in one country, which was enclosed in glass for security, to overlook the “ cods ” . These gaols have been termed “ podular remote-supervision installations ” . ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) This type of gaol has its troubles. The advantage for this type of gaol is that the staff can see more of the inmates without holding to walk down a corridor. The disadvantage for this type of gaol is that the staff and inmates are still separated and with no societal contact, much like the first-generation gaols.
The Third-Generation gaols, which are besides known as direct-supervision gaols, were introduced in the early 1970 ‘s. The lodging unit is podular. The cells are arranged around a common country or dayroom. There is non command booth and no physical barriers between the staff and the inmates. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) The first direct-supervision county gaol in the United States was the Martinez Detention Facility in Contra Cost, California. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) With the direct-supervision jails come the rules of Direct Supervision: 1. Effective control, 2. Effective supervising, 3. Competent staff, 4. Staff and inmate safety, 5. Manageable and cost-efficient operations, 6. Effective communicating, 7. Categorization and orientation, 8. Justice and equity, and 9. Ownership of operations. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) Direct-supervision gaols facilitate staff motion, interaction with inmates, and control and leading over cods. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 ) With direct-supervision, staff and inmates intermingle and this is a positive motion towards the reformation of the inmates and their societal accomplishments. You can non merely set person back into society if he/she has had no contact with other people over a certain sum of clip. When you are entirely, after a piece you get utilize to the thought of being alone and you get “ set in your ways ” and follow a certain manner of making things. Take my brother for illustration, no he was non in gaol, but he had been populating on his ain after his divorce for about 10 old ages and when he late remarried, it was hard for him to accommodate to new life style that involved another individual. He had to set his ways that he had been accustomed to and to accept new thoughts and new “ regulations ” for the house. This was really hard for him and it goes along the same line for inmates. Peoples need societal interaction and with the third-generation jails they received it.
The Fourth-Generation gaols brought betterments to the direct-supervision gaols by adding “ borrowed light ” or natural sunshine into the twenty-four hours room. This improves the lesson of the inmates and staff and saves on electricity measures when it is cheery outdoors. Along with the borrowed visible radiation construct, the fourth-generation gaols besides implemented plan services, more staff, voluntaries, and visitants to the gaol, even peddling machines to the twenty-four hours room. This reduces the feeling of isolation. This betterment adds to the staff the ability to transport out the nine rules of direct-supervision. ( Schmalleger & A ; Smykla, 2011 )
Along with these new coevals gaols requires new interpersonal accomplishments. Military officers and staff must hold first-class interpersonal accomplishments. They must be able to turn to minor and major struggles within the cods, even though in the new coevals gaols, particularly the fourth-generation gaols, struggles are at a minimum rate due to the improved conditions and the attitudes of both the inmates and the staff. Reports have shown that the staff “ no longer saw themselves as mere guards or defined their occupations as merely to maintain felons locked up ” . Among the positive impacts, the officers and staff tend to see the gaols as “ cleansing agent, less crowded, holding fresher air, and being more temperate ” . However, these same researches besides showed, even with the betterments, that the staff was no more satisfied than with the new coevals gaols than the traditional gaols. ( Appegate & A ; Paoline, 2007 ) I can see how the “ cleansing agent ” gaols could be a positive consequence on the staff and inmates. Take for illustration, you are invited over to a friends ‘ house and it is wholly in pandemonium and messy. The friend might be comfy in that type of environment, but you are non so comfy. If the environment were cleaner and more organized, you would be more comfy and able to loosen up and bask that visit. Same thing with gaols, the cleansing agent and organized it is, the more positive the attitudes of the staff and inmates. They will be more prone to pass on and “ follow the regulations ” than in a creaky, unstructured type of gaol. Another point of position would be that if an inmate can see that the topographic point he/she is housed and it is non being take attention of decently, what makes them believe that anyone attentions to happen ways of bettering it, that the installation is self-satisfied with the conditions? Not that I would desire to see jail life, I would prefer it to be clean, healthy and slightly a positive environment.
With the betterments of the 3rd and 4th coevals gaols brought, it besides brought contention and disadvantages. Consequences from surveies show that few gaols are purely adhering to the new design techniques that have been recommended for the successful operations of these new coevals gaols. ( Tartaro, 2002 ) Overcrowding is a popular job in today ‘s gaols and even thought the offense rate is down, there is still overcrowding. Another job the new coevals gaols have is the age of the wrongdoers has increased and holding the necessary adjustments for these “ senior ” captives. In the traditional gaols, there were no medical interventions available, in today ‘s gaols, most gaols offer medical intervention, but merely on the same degree as lower income households. Surveies have besides shown that inmates with disablements are a turning job in that they were discriminated against and most gaols do non hold the agencies to house inmates with disablements, and I mentioned earlier, the 8th amendment protects this group of captives in today ‘s society. ( Ginsberg, 2009 )
In shutting, the research I have done I have learned that the differences in the “ old ” gaols and the “ new ” gaols are similar in some ways and wholly opposite in other ways. I believe that in the old gaols and the manner they were imprisoned were more likely non to reiterate their discourtesies, and in the new gaols, wrongdoers are likely to reiterate their discourtesies. In the old gaols, inmates were brought into the public oculus and were embarrassed by their actions. The old, traditional gaols were non focused on reforming the captives ; they were more focussed on penalty to these felons. In today ‘s gaols, we are more focussed on reformation of the captives and seeking to assist them unify back into the society from what they one time came from, but as I have learned in category, some inmate reiterate their discourtesies because the gaol life is better life than what they had. They may hold come from broken places, life of poorness and the gaols give them a topographic point of security and more of a place life than what they had. Equally sad as this is, it is true and with the economic system the manner it is, this would look like a better life. New coevals emerged due to society to “ stand against the inhumane intervention that inmates were submitted to and to necessitate the transmutation of detainment topographic points from excusive instruments of penalty into constitutions of moral convalescence ” ( Merei, 2012 ) Merei besides stated that “ in the 19th century, it was developed the construct harmonizing to which gaols could go, from the agencies of atonement of the immorality committed, societal sanctums for mending the psyche of the 1 in struggle with the Torahs of society ” . In Merei ‘s study, she mentioned that a adult male named Panait Mucoiu made a categorical statement, which sums it all up. Mucoiu stated, “ Equally long as you take the work forces ‘s freedom, you will decidedly non transform him into a better individual. You will reap backsliding. By imprisoning him and by giving him, every minute, the strong belief that everything that happens in detainment is a penalty, the society returns with all its resources to do him an enemy ” . ( Merei, 2012 )
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Ginsberg, B. ( 2009, June ) . Out with the new, in with the old: the importance of subdivision 504 of the Rehabiliation Act to captives with disabilites. p. 713.
Head, T. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved December 1, 2012, from About.com Civil Liberties: hypertext transfer protocol: //civilliberty.about.com/od/lawenforcementterrorism/p/8th_amendment.htm
Merei, L. E. ( 2012, January ) . The avowal of the regenerating current of prison reform in the nineteenth century Rumanian thought. p. 313.
Schmalleger, F. , & A ; Smykla, J. ( 2011 ) . Correctionss in the twenty-first Century. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tartaro, C. ( 2002, September ) . Analyzing Implementation Issues with New Generation Jails. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from Sage Diaries: hypertext transfer protocol: //cjp.sagepub.com.ezproxy.lib.uwf.edu/content/13/3/219