Introduction to the study of Cell and Molecular Biology

1.1 The Discovery of Cells

Who was the first to use a microscope?
Robert Hooke in the 1600’s analyzed a cork

What is the Cell Theory?
All Organisms are composed of one or more cells
Cells are the structural unit of life
Cells only come from pre-existing cells

1.2 Basic Properties of Cells

What is an In Vitro cell?
In culture, outside of the body.

What is the significance of an In Vitro cell?
Essential tool to research cells

What are the basic properties of cells?
Complex and Organized.
Transient function of organelles.
Different variation of interaction.
Great PRECISION in cellular activities.
Reproduce.
React to stimuli.

What is the importance of a nuclear pore?
Essential to regulate transportation in and out of the nucleus through receptor stimulus

What are viruses?
Non-cellular macromolecular packages that require host cell to function. Outside of cell, they are vision, inanimate.

What is a virion?
A small amount (few 100) of DNA or RNA in a protein capsid which protects the RNA. It can only replicate in a cell.

How do viruses affect cells?
Bind to specific surface on cell with either wide or narrow host ranges. A wide range can affect a large amount of animals such as rabies, where as a narrow range is something like the influenza.

What are the two main types of viral infection?
Lytic and non-lytic. Lytic is when a host cell ruptures and spreads while killing the cells. Non-lytic is when Viral DNA is inserted into host genome. This creates a provirus and cell performs with impaired function. It creates buds named progeny which replicate.

1.3 Two Fundamentally Different Classes of Cells

What are the similarities between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
Plasma membrane construction.
Same DNA genetic code.
Similar methods of transcription and translation.
Share metabolic pathways; example: glycolysis and TCA cycle.
Similar methods for conservation of chemical energy as ATP.
Similar mechanisms for photosynthesis and synthesizing membrane proteins.
Similar Proteasomes which digest structures.

What are the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotes have nucleus isolated by nuclear envelope pore structure vs nucleoid.
ER, golgi complex, lysosomes, endosomes, perlxisomes and glyoxisomes.
Complex cytoskeletal system.
Cytoplasmic organelles designed for aerobic respiration and photosynthesis
Ability for endocytosis and phagocytosis.
Two copies of parent DNA.
Meiosis and fertilization required.

Further differences
Membrane boung organelles. Prokaryotes do not have many organelles in the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotes undergo mitosis giving two copies of genes to the daughter cells whereas Prokaryotes under conjugation and evolve.

Further similarities
Both have ribosomes where proteins are manufactured.

What are biofilms?
Multi-species community where different bacteria have different functions

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