Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design Essay
In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____.
a. begins by outlining its business models and identifying possible IT solutionsb. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to doc. considers implementation options after having a clear set of objectivesd. all of the aboveANS:BPTS:1REF:7 2.
____ software controls the flow of data, provides data security, and manages network operations.a. Enterprisec. Applicationb.
Systemd. LegacyANS:BPTS:1REF:8 3. Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks.a. enterprise applicationsc.
operating applicationsb. network operating systems (NOS)d. legacy systemsANS:APTS:1REF:8 4. Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore’s Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____.a.
2 monthsc. 24 monthsb. 12 monthsd. 48 monthsANS:CPTS:1REF:8 5. When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____.a.
enterprise applicationsc. operating applicationsb. network operating systems (NOS)d. legacy systemsANS:DPTS:1REF:9 6. For complex operations, analysts apply computer-based modeling tools that use a standard language called ____.
a. electronic data interchange (EDI)b. joint application development (JAD)c. business process modeling notation (BPMN)d. rapid application development (RAD)ANS:CPTS:1REF:10 7.
Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent company operations and information needs.a. JADc. RADb. Scrumd.
business process modelingANS:DPTS:1REF:10 8. A business ____ is an overview that describes a company’s overall functions, processes, organization, products, services, customers, suppliers, competitors, constraints, and future direction.a. matrixc. indexb.
profiled. glossaryANS:BPTS:1REF:10 . Which of the following is one of the main sectors of e-commerce?a. C2Cc. C2Bb. B2Cd.
BBCANS:BPTS:1REF:13 10. ____ enabled computer-to-computer transfer of data between companies, usually over private telecommunications networks.a. EDIc. TCHb. ACHd.
O-OANS:APTS:1REF:14 11. Transaction processing (TP) systems ____.a. provide job-related information to users at all levels of a companyb.
simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is appliedc. process data generated by day-to-day business operationsd. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-speed Internet accessANS:CPTS:1REF:15 12. Business support systems ____.a.
provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a companyb. simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is appliedc. process data generated by day-to-day business operationsd. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-speed Internet accessANS:APTS:1REF:16 13.
Knowledge management systems are called expert systems because they ____.a. provide job-related information to users at all levels of a companyb. simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is appliedc. process data generated by day-to-day business operationsd. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-speed Internet accessANS:BPTS:1REF:16 14.
User productivity systems ____.a. provide job-related information to users at all levels of a companyb. simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is appliedc. process data generated by day-to-day business operationsd.
include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video and Web conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, presentation graphics, company intranets, and high-speed Internet accessANS:DPTS:1REF:17 15. In a typical company organizational model, top managers ____.a. develop long-range plans, called strategic plans, which define the company’s overall mission and goalsb.
provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leadersc. oversee operation employees and carry out day-to-day functions, coordinating operational tasks and peopled. include users who rely on TP systems to enter and receive the data they need to perform their jobsANS:APTS:1REF:18 6. In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____.a. develop long-range plans, called strategic plans, which define the company’s overall mission and goalsb.
provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leadersc. oversee operation employees and carry out day-to-day functions, coordinating operational tasks and peopled. include users who rely on TP systems to enter and receive the data they need to perform their jobsANS:BPTS:1REF:18 17. A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide.a.
process modelc. business modelb. data modeld. network modelANS:CPTS:1REF:19 18. A(n) ____ describes the logic that programmers use to write code modules.
a. process modelc. business modelb. object modeld. network modelANS:APTS:1REF:19 19. ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify.
a. Prototypingc. Scrumb. Rapid application developmentd. ModelingANS:DPTS:1REF:19 20.
___ is a systems development technique that tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decisions are made.a. Scrumc. Modelingb. Prototypingd.
Rapid application developmentANS:BPTS:1REF:20 21. ____ methods include the latest trends in software development.a. Object-oriented analysisc. Structured analysisb. Agile/Adaptived.
Rapid application developmentANS:BPTS:1REF:21 22. The ____ method of developing systems is well-suited to project management tools and techniques.a. object-oriented analysisc.
structured analysisb. adaptived. rapid application developmentANS:CPTS:1REF:21 23. The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable.
a. object-oriented analysisc. structured analysisb. adaptived. rapid application developmentANS:APTS:1REF:21 24.
The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values.a. object-oriented analysisc. structured analysisb.
agile/adaptived. rapid application developmentANS:BPTS:1REF:21 25. Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system.a. O-Oc. MSFb.
SDLCd. RUP ANS:BPTS:1REF:22 26. Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique.a.
iterativec. inferredb. process-centeredd. empoweredANS:BPTS:1REF:22 27. In the ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase in the SDLc.a.
interactive modelc. waterfall modelb. requirements modeld. object modelANS:CPTS:1REF:22 28. In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process.a.
systems design phasec. systems support and security phaseb. systems planning phased. systems analysis phaseANS:BPTS:1REF:23 29. In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the purpose of the ____ is to build a logical model of the new system.
a. systems analysis phasec. systems design phaseb. systems implementation phased. systems support and security phaseANS:APTS:1REF:23 30.
In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the purpose of the ____ is to create a physical model that will satisfy all documented requirements for the system.a. systems implementation phasec. systems analysis phaseb. systems planning phased. systems design phaseANS:DPTS:1REF:24 31.
In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the new system is constructed.a. systems planningc. systems designb.
systems support and securityd. systems implementationANS:DPTS:1REF:24 32. In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system.a. systems support and securityc. systems analysisb.
systems implementationd. systems planningANS:APTS:1REF:24 33. Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects.a. the MSFc.
RUPb. the SDLCd. O-OANS:DPTS:1REF:24 34. In object-oriented programming, an object is a member of a(n) ____, which is a collection of similar objects.a. propertyc.
messageb. classd. instanceANS:BPTS:1REF:24 35. In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object’s properties.
a. methodsc. attributesb. functionsd. featuresANS:APTS:1REF:25 36. Agile methods typically use a(n) ____model, which represents a series of iterations based on user feedback.
a. gradualc. spiralb. extremed. evaluativeANS:CPTS:1REF:26 37. When building an information system, all of the following basic guidelines should be considered except ____.
a. stick to an overall development planb. identify major milestones for project review and assessmentc. provide accurate and reliable cost and benefit informationd. ensure that users are not involved in the development processANS:DPTS:1REF:27 38. The ____ group typically provides leadership and overall guidance, but the systems themselves are developed by teams consisting of users, managers, and IT staff members.
a. Web supportc. systems supportb. application developmentd. database administrationANS:BPTS:1REF:28 39. ___ provides vital protection and maintenance services for system software and hardware, including enterprise computing systems, networks, transaction processing systems, and corporate IT infrastructure.
a. User supportc. Systems support and securityb. Database administrationd.
Network administrationANS:CPTS:1REF:29 40. A systems analyst needs ____.a. solid technical knowledge and good analytical abilityb. strong oral and written communication skillsc.
an understanding of business operations and processesd. all of the aboveANS:DPTS:1REF:30 MULTIPLE RESPONSE Modified Multiple Choice 1. An example of a vertical system is a(n) ____.a. inventory applicationc. payroll applicationb.
medical practice applicationd. database for a video chainANS:B, DPTS:1REF:8 2. An example of a horizontal system is a(n) ____.a. inventory applicationc.
payroll applicationb. application for a Web-based retailerd. medical practice applicationANS:A, CPTS:1REF:8 3. A business process describes a specific set of ____.
a. transactionsc. eventsb. employeesd. resultsANS:A, C, DPTS:1REF:10 4.
Product-oriented firms produced ____.a. retail servicesc. computersb. routersd.
microchipsANS:B, C, DPTS:1REF:11 5. Database administration involves ____.a. network administrationc. data designb. user accessd.
backupANS:B, C, DPTS:1REF:29 MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE 1. System software consists of programs that support day-to-day business functions and provide users with the information they require. _________________________ANS:F, Application PTS:1REF:8 2. Value-added services such as consulting, financing, and technical support can be more profitable than hardware.
_________________________ ANS:TPTS:1REF:11 3. Rational Unified Process documents the experience of Microsoft’s own software development teams. ________________________ANS:F Microsoft Solutions Framework MSF PTS:1REF:27 4. Rapid application development focuses on team-based fact-finding. _________________________ANS:F Joint application development Joint application development (JAD) JAD JAD (joint application development)_________________________PTS:1REF:27 5. User support provides users with technical information, training, and productivity support.
_________________________ANS:TPTS:1REF:29 TRUE/FALSE 1. Most firms give their IT budgets a low priority in bad economic times.ANS:FPTS:1REF:4 2. A mission-critical system is one that is unimportant to a company’s operations.
ANS:FPTS:1REF:7 3. In an information system, data is information that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users.ANS:FPTS:1REF:7 4. In an information system, information consists of basic facts that are the system’s raw material.
ANS:FPTS:1REF:7 5. The success or failure of an information system usually is unrelated to whether users are satisfied with the system’s output and operations.ANS:FPTS:1REF:10 6. Although the business-to-business (B2B) sector is more familiar to retail customers, the volume of business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions is many times greater.ANS:FPTS:1REF:14 7. TP systems are inefficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands individually rather than as a group.
ANS:FPTS:1REF:16 8. In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships.ANS:FPTS:1REF:17 9. A knowledge management system uses inference rules, which consist of a large database that allows users to find information by entering keywords or questions in normal English phrases.
ANS:FPTS:1REF:17 10. Most large companies require systems that combine transaction processing, business support, knowledge management, and user productivity features.ANS:TPTS:1REF:17 11. Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations.ANS:FPTS:1REF:18-19 12. Many companies find that a trend called empowerment, which gives employees more responsibility and accountability, improves employee motivation and increases customer satisfaction.
ANS:TPTS:1REF:19 13. CASE tools provide an overall framework for systems development and support a wide variety of design methodologies, including structured analysis and object-oriented analysis.ANS:TPTS:1REF:20 14. It is unusual for system developers to mix and match system development methods to gain a better perspective.ANS:FPTS:1REF:22 15.
In the systems planning phase, a key part of the preliminary investigation is a feasibility study that reviews anticipated costs and benefits and recommends a course of action based on operational, technical, economic, and time factors.ANS:TPTS:1REF:23 16. In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do to satisfy users is documented.ANS:TPTS:1REF:23 17. In object-oriented design, objects possess characteristics called properties, which the object inherits from its class or possesses on its own. ANS:TPTS:1REF:24 18.
A scalable design can expand to meet new business requirements and volumes.ANS:TPTS:1REF:24 19. In object-oriented design, a message requests specific behavior or information from another object.ANS:TPTS:1REF:25 20.
Microsoft offers a development approach called Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF), which documents the experience of its own software development teams.ANS:TPTS:1REF:27 21. An IT group provides technical support, which includes application development, systems support and security, user support, database administration, network administration, and Web support.ANS:TPTS:1REF:28 22. Network administration includes hardware and software maintenance, support, and security.ANS:TPTS:1REF:29 23.
Companies typically require that systems analysts have a college degree in information systems, computer science, business, or a closely related field, and some IT experience usually is require d.ANS:TPTS:1REF:32 24. The responsibilities of a systems analyst at a small firm are exactly the same as those at a large corporation.ANS:FPTS:1REF:33 25. A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business.ANS:TPTS:1REF:33 COMPLETION 1.
_________________________ refers to the combination of hardware, software, and services that companies use to manage, communicate, and share information.ANS: Information technology (IT) IT PTS:1REF:4 2. _________________________ is a step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems.ANS:Systems analysis and design PTS:1REF:7 3. A(n) _________________________ combines information technology, people, and data to support business requirements.
ANS:information system PTS:1REF:7 4. An IT department team includes _________________________ who plan, develop, and maintain information systems.ANS:systems analysts PTS:1REF:7 5. A(n) _________________________ is a set of related components that produces specific results, such as routing Internet traffic, manufacturing microchips, and controlling complex entities like the Mars Rover.ANS:system PTS:1REF:7 6.
In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, _________________________ consist(s) of everything in the physical layer of the information system.ANS:hardware PTS:1REF:8 7. In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, _________________________ refer(s) to the programs that control the hardware and produce the desired information or results.ANS:software PTS:1REF:8 8. In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, _________________________ is/are the raw material that an information system transforms into useful information.ANS:data PTS:1REF:9 9.
In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, _________________________ describe(s) the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results.ANS:processes PTS:1REF:9 10. In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, the people, called _________________________, interact with an information system, both inside and outside the company.ANS: users end users PTS:1REF:10 11. The newest category of company is the _________________________ whose primary business depends on the Internet rather than a traditional business channel.
ANS: Internet-dependent firm dot-com company .com company PTS:1REF:12 12. Traditional companies sometimes are called _________________________ companies because they conduct business primarily from physical locations.ANS:brick-and-mortar PTS:1REF:12 13. Internet-based commerce is called _________________________ and includes two main sectors: B2C (business-to-consumer) and B2B (business-to-business).
ANS: e-commerce electronic commerce I-commerce Internet commerce PTS:1REF:13 14. _________________________ technology uses high-frequency radio waves to track physical object.ANS: RFID Radio frequency identification RFID (Radio frequency identification) Radio frequency identification (RFID) PTS:1REF:16 15. A truck fleet dispatcher might run a series of _________________________ scenarios to determine the impact of increased shipments or bad weather.ANS:what-if PTS:1REF:16 16. _________________________ programs run on a company intranet and enable users to share data, collaborate on projects, and work in teams.
ANS:Groupware PTS:1REF:17 17. The systems implementation phase of the SDLC includes an assessment, called a(n) _________________________, to determine whether the system operates properly and if costs and benefits are within expectation.ANS:systems evaluation PTS:1REF:24 18. A(n) _________________________ uses various symbols and shapes to represent data flow, processing, and storage.ANS: data flow diagram DFD data flow diagram (DFD) DFD (data flow diagram) PTS:1REF:22 19. _________________________ design and construct Web pages, monitor traffic, manage hardware and software, and link Web-based applications to a company’s information systems.
ANS:Web support specialists PTS:1REF:29 20. Many hardware and software companies offer _________________________ for IT professionals, which verifies that an individual demonstrated a certain level of knowledge and skill on a standardized test.ANS:certification PTS:1REF:32 MATCHING Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.a.
MIS f. team leadersb. network model g. operational employeesc. object model h. supply chain managementd.
fuzzy logici. data modele. ERPj. prototype1.
In many large companies, these kinds of systems provide cost-effective support for users and managers throughout the company.2. The name for new business support systems that produced valuable information, in addition to performing manual tasks; their primary users were managers.3. A B2B site that allows buyers, sellers, distributors, and manufacturer to offer products, submit specifications, and transact business.
4. Many knowledge management systems use this technique, which allows inferences to be drawn from imprecise relationships.5. People who oversee operational employees and carry out day-to-day functions.
6. People who rely on TP systems to enter and receive data they need to perform their jobs.7. Describes the design and protocols of telecommunications links.8. Describes objects, which combine data and processes.
9. Describes data structures and design.10. An early working version of an information system.
1. ANS:EPTS:1REF:152. ANS:APTS:1REF:163. ANS:HPTS:1REF:144. ANS:DPTS:1REF:175. ANS:FPTS:1REF:196.
ANS:GPTS:1REF:197. ANS:BPTS:1REF:198. ANS:CPTS:1REF:199. ANS:IPTS:1REF:1910. ANS:JPTS:1REF:20ESSAY 1. Explain what a knowledge worker is, and why this kind of worker is required by successful companies.
ANS: Knowledge workers include professional staff members such as systems analysts, programmers, accountants, researchers, trainers, and human resource specialists. Knowledge workers also use business support systems, knowledge management systems, and user productivity systems.Knowledge workers provide support for the organization’s basic functions. Just as a military unit requires logistical support, a successful company needs knowledge workers to carry out its mission.PTS:1REF:19TOP:Critical Thinking 2.
What are the disadvantages of each of the three system development methods?ANS: With structured analysis, changes can be costly, especially in later phases. Requirements are defined early, and can change during development. Users might not be able to describe their needs until they can see examples of features and functions.With object-oriented analysis, this somewhat newer method of development might be less familiar to development team members. Also, the interaction of objects and classes can be complex in larger systems. With agile/adaptive methods, team members need a high level of technical and communications skills.
Lack of structure and documentation can introduce risk factors. Finally, the overall project might be subject to scope change as user requirements change.PTS:1REF:21TOP:Critical Thinking 3.Discuss the five basic systems development guidelines.ANS: Develop a Plan Prepare an overall project plan and stick to it.Complete the tasks in a logical sequence.
Develop a clear set of ground rules and be sure that everyone on the team understands them clearly. Involve Users and Listen Carefully to Them Ensure that users are involved in the development process, especially when identifying and modeling system requirements. When you interact with users, listen closely to what they are saying. Use Project Management Tools and Techniques Try to keep the project on track and avoid surprises. Create a reasonable number of checkpoints — too many can be burdensome, but too few will not provide adequate control.
Develop Accurate Cost and Benefit Information Managers need to know the cost of developing and operating a system, and the value of the benefits it will provide. You must provide accurate, realistic cost and benefit estimates, and update them as necessary. Remain Flexible Be flexible within the framework of your plan. Systems development is a dynamic process, and overlap often exists among tasks. The ability to react quickly is especially important when you are working on a system that must be developed rapidly.
PTS:1REF:27TOP:Critical Thinking CASE Critical Thinking Questions Case 1-1Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier.1. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method?a. structured analysisb. agile/adaptive methodsc.
object-oriented analysisd. rapid application developmentANS: B PTS:1REF:21TOP:Critical Thinking 2.It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together.Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions.
Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game — but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development?a. structured analysisb. agile/adaptive methodsc. object-oriented analysisd. rapid application developmentANS: A PTS:1REF:21TOP:Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Questions Case 1-2Maddy has been performing at a very high level at the firm, and so when two colleagues of hers who are currently leading other development efforts get sick or leave the company, she is asked to step in and help manage these two other efforts.
3. When Maddy sits down at the first meeting at which the first group is gathering, she hears them discussing the feasibility study in which they are currently engaged. She knows, then, in which phase of the SDLC this team currently is. Which phase is it?a. systems analysisb.
systems designc. systems planningd. systems implementationANS: C PTS:1REF:23TOP:Critical Thinking .After leaving the first meeting, Maddy goes down the hall to meet with the outgoing manager of the second team. In that meeting, he shares with her the latest draft of the systems requirement document, which is nearly complete. In which phase is the second team currently?a.
systems analysisb. systems designc. systems planningd. systems implementation