Introduction to Soil Chemistry

soil can be red due to…
high Fe
weathering rind
layer on the surface of a rock where soil starts to form
these components provides structure to the soil
the inorganic components
the 1nm thick films on the surface of water are caused by…
reduced Fe
the bonding that occurs when minerals are packed together
lots of ionic bonding
something that can cause red and white stripes in soil
pale stripes where soil has lost Fe due to leaching and red stripes where Fe has reprecipitated
some stuff that could be in the black layer of a soil
organic matter and some stuff that leached there
Chemistry in the natural environment is basically one big…
acid-base rxn
Stuff in the chemistry of the environment cycles between the…
-atmosphere
-hydrosphere
-lithosphere
-pedoshpere
-biosphere
Some chemical components of the atmosphere
-acids-redox agents-CO2-NOX-SO2-O2
Some chemical components of the hydrosphere
-soils
-groundwaters
-rivers
-oceans
Some chemical components of the lithosphere
-bases
-rock
-carbonates
-silicates
Some chemical components of the pedosphere
soil
Some chemical components of the biosphere
-plants
-animals
-microbes
the type of systems soils are
open biogeochemical systems
what happens with products and reactants in soils?
lose products and gain reactants
depiction of the matter and energy transfer in soil
[image]
Soil
Porous media created at land surface by weathering pressures derived from biological, geological and hydrologic processes
Some important chemical characteristics of soil
-Multiphase
-Multicomponent
-Open
-Biogeochemical
how soil is multiphase
has solids, liquids, and gases
how soil is multicomponent
all phases are mixtures
how soil is open
exchange matter and energy with surroundings (hydro-, bio-, litho- spheres)
how soil is biogeochemical
biotic and abiotic reactions occur in the soil
Some things in the atmosphere that can go to the soil
-H2O-O2-CO2-NO2-SO2
Some solutes that can go from soil to rivers
-H2O-HCO3-M2+-Si(OH)40-Org.-NO3-SO42-
Some NOM that can go into the soil
Reduced C compounds (e, H+, complexing ligands)
Soil phases by volume
[image]
The most abundant elements in soil
-O
-Si
-Al
-Fe
-Ca
-C
Trace element
mass concentration in solid phase ? 100 mg / kg (100 ppm)
Some trace elements in soil
-Li
-Be
-B
-Cl
-Sc
-V
-Cr
-Co
-Ni
-Cu
-Cs
The elemental composition of soil is relative to…
crustal rock (parent material)
Weathering produces ______ in soils
enrichments and depletions
when enrichment occurs
Enrichment occurs at enrichment factor (EF) > 2
when depletion occurs
depletion occurs at EF , 0.5
the compounds that are thought to be ionic
Those that are more than 50% ionic
The type of bond is classed by…
% ionic bond character and the ?EN
Chart that shows types of bonds based on % ionic bond character and ?EN
[image]
Depiction of a cation and its solvation shells
[image]
Primary hydration number
the number of water molecules in the primary solvation shell
the water molecules that are hardest to remove from a dissolved ion
the ones in the primary solvation shell
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