Intro to Special Education

CH 2: First recommended step when encountering a child with disabilities for the first time.
Devise and Implement an Intervention (key word INTERVENTION)
Response to intervention
CH 2: 90% of special ed referrals..
..result in formal evaluations.
CH 2: A schools’s multidisciplinary evaluation team must include
the parent(s).
CH 3: Parents initial reaction of learning their child has a disability include
feelings of shook, denial, and disbelief.
CH 3: Common feelings of a sibling to a child with disabilities include
fear they will be rejected by their disabled sibling.
CH 3: Effective home/school partnerships have
a climate of mutual respect and trust.
CH 3: Key element in a family-professional partnership includes
an ongoing 2-way communication.
CH 3: Cultural Reciprocity
A two-way process between professionals and families of information sharing, understanding and respecting how their differing values and belief systems may influence perspectives, wishes, and decisions. (Teacher believes one thing, parent believes another but teacher understands the parents point of view and respects that)
CH 3: Universal method of home/school communication
Parent/Teacher conferences
CH 3: Regular phone calls..
are effective to maintain parent involvement.
CH 3: Teachers who implement home/school contracts..
..depend on parents to reward progress.
CH 3: Respite Care
The short-term care of a family member with disabilities to provide relief from the care giver.
CH 3: Arguing VS. Dialoguing
Arguer tries to convince;Dialoguer wants to discover
REFLECT, explain, reason, understand, and negotiate.
CH 3: What is a true assumption between the special ed system and culturally diverse families?
The families may view professionals as experts and be hesitant to speak their opinions.
CH 3: Talking photo album…
.. helped to teach new vocab to parents and children.
CH 3: What’s an assumption of the mirror-model for parent involvement?
Parents may not need everything that professionals offer.
CH 2: 5 Step process of special education
1. Intervention
2. Evaluate/Identify
3. Plan program
4. Placement
5. Progress review (annually)
CH 2: Factors that led to disproportion of cultures/races/genders with disabilities
Incongruity between student and teacher, inaccurate assessment of student, or ineffective curriculum for the student.
Individualized education program, legal contract for ages 3-21. Holds teachers accountable.

IEP team must include parents, gen & special ed teachers, LEA rep, evaluation results person and child if appropriate.

IEP components include present levels, goal levels, how the child will be assessed, services, explanation of circumstances the child will not participate with gen ed students, accommodations, dates and at 16 a transition plan.

IEP is measurable, goals per subject and behavior.

CH 2: Individualized service family plan
IEP from birth to 3
Least restrictive environment, never permanent and is individualized. Close to gen ed as possible.
CH 2: Inclusion
Educating students with disabilities in general education classrooms.
CH 2: Cooperative learning should include
groups goals and individual accountability.
CH 2: Research based form of cooperative learning
Class wide peer tutoring also promotes inclusion.
CH 2: Problems with special ed include
insufficient funds, excessive paper work, unclear guidelines, over-representation of divers groups, and lack of training of gen ed teachers.
CH 3: 3 Factors for increase of family involement
Parents want to be involved, education succeeds with family and the law requires the collaboration.
CH 3: Benefits of family involvement
Increase of meeting IEP goals, better access to resources and increased opportunities for learning.
CH 3: 5 stage resilience model (parents)
1- Identification
2- Self-education
3- Reflection of self and family
4- Advocacy
5- Appreciation
Quiz 4: Criteria for a intellectual disability include
problems of behavior, sub average intelligence, and manifestation during the developmental period.
Quiz 4: Difference between the AAIDD and IDEA intellectual disabilities definition
IDEA adds the effect on education
Quiz 4: 5 factors of the AAIDD
1- health
2- behavior
3- intellectual
Quiz 4: IQ tests are useful except for
determining objectives for IEPs
Quiz 4: A person’s adaptive behavior is assessed by
talking to close relatives.
Quiz 4: Most students are identified by
2nd or 3rd grade
Quiz 4: Children with disabilities have similar abilities to children without disabilities with
long-term memory.
Quiz 4: Students with intellectual disabilities have problems with attention that include
slower to attend to relevant features of the tasks.
Quiz 4: Students with disabilities have problems in social settings that include
poor communication, unable to recognize emotional states of others, and unusual/inappropriate behavior.
Quiz 4: It is diffiult to diagnoise LD due to
undefined definition and unclear criteria.
Quiz 4: The 2 most common genetic causes of intellectual disability are
down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.
Quiz 4: Environmental causes of intellectual disabilities include
poverty, child abuse and chronic sensory deprivation.
Quiz 4: Test for genetic abnormalities that may be done as early as 5 weeks is
detecting fetal DNA and RNA in the mother’s bloodstream.
Quiz 4: Phonemic awarness
child ability to understand that words have smaller sounds, and these sounds together create syllables and words
Quiz 4: Most common way to identify a discrepancy between expected achievement and actual achienevment
is to compare IQ test.
Quiz 4: A drawback to the discrepancy approach to identify children with disabilities
it’s a wait to fail approach.
Quiz 4:Most students with ld has a problem with
Quiz 4: To make lessons explicit
model specific examples.
Quiz 4:: LD children written language
is usual worse than oral language.
Quiz 4: Least likely way to learn math is
discovery learning.
Quiz 4:: To show specific improvements use this type of assessment
Curriculum-based measurement.
Quiz 4: To show specific skills use this type of assessment
Criterion-referenced test.
Quiz 4: Primed background knowledge
a major principle of effective instructional design; previous learned knowledge, placed effectively in sequence, that students must already possess in order to learn new knowledge
Quiz 4: Teacher made handout of lecture content with space to write in note is
guided notes.
Quiz 4: Using HOMES as a hint to remember the great lakes is a
letter strategy.
Quiz 4: Special ed teacher can help students achieve in reg ed classrooms by teaching
good behaviors.
Quiz 4: Form of direct daily measurement
CH 4: IDEA definition of ID (intellectual disabilities)
Sub-average intelligence, deficits in adaptive behavior, manifests during the developmental period.

Criteria for diagnosis:
1- 2 deviations below the mean
2- Significantly deficits in adaptive behavior
3- Must occur during the developmental period

CH 4: AAIDD definition of ID (intellectual disabilities)
Significant limitations in both intellect and behavior, originates before age 18.

1- Limitations must be compared to similar age groups
2- Use of a valid assessment that takes into account culture differences
3- Limitations range from individuals
4- Purpose of limitations is to determine needed support(s)
5- With the support the life of a person with an ID will improve

CH 4: IQ scores of mild/moderate/severe/profound
Mild- 50/55-70
Mod- 35/40-50
Severe- 20/25-40
Profound 25/20 and below
CH 4: Positive attributes of children with ID
curiosity and tenacity
get along well with others
positive influences
CH 4: Biggest prevention of ID
rubella vaccine (1962).
Other preventable preventions against ID include drug use and environment pollutants.
CH 4: Functional curriculum
Curriculum based on every day skills to promote independence.
CH 4: 6 Instructional Methods
1-Task analysis: break down a complex task into smaller tasks.
2- Active student response- observable response
3- Systematic feedback
4- Transfer of stimulus control- systematically removing response prompts
5- Generalization
6- Direct/frequent measure of performance- objectives
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