Intro to Special Education

Learning Disability (LD)
A disorder related to processing information that leads to difficulties in reading, writing, and computing; the most common disability accounting for almost half of all students receiving special education.
-condition in which a student has dysfunction in processing information typically found in language-based activities, resulting in interference with learning.
-students with learning disabilities have average or above average intelligence but experience significant problems in learning how to read, write, and/ or do math.

Speech or Language Impairment (SLI)
A disorder related to accurate producing the sounds of language or meaningfully using language to communicate.
-students may have trouble with articulation.
students may omit words or mispronounce common words.
-students may experience difficulty in fluency (i.e. a significant stuttering problem).
-speech/language services are usually considered a related service.

Intellectual Disability (ID)
Significant limitations in intellectual ability and adaptive behavior; this disability occurs in a range of severity.
-this term is sometimes used as a synonym for mental retardation.
-students learn at a slower pace than do other students and may reach a point at which their learning levels off.
-some individuals need lifelong support, but most individuals with this disability lead independent lives after they leave school, holding jobs, etc.

Emotional Disturbance (ED)
Significant problems in the social-emotional area to a degree that learning is negatively affected.
-sometimes also called emotional and behavior disorder (EBD) or and Emotional Disability.
-Condition in which an individual has significant difficulty in the social and emotional domain so much so that it interferes with learning.
-Students with this disability may have difficulty with interpersonal relationships & may respond inappropriately in emotional situations.
-Some students with ED are depressed; others are aggressive.
-Students with ED have chronic snd extremely serious emotional or behavioral problems.

Autism
A disorder characterized by extraordinary difficulty in social responsiveness; this disability occurs in many difference forms and may be mild or significant. Sometimes referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorder.
-an individual lacks social responsiveness from a very early age, has high need for structure and routines, and demonstrates significant language impairments (these characteristics interfere with learning).
-Students generally avoid physical contact like hugging and holding hands and they may not make eye contact.
-Some students with Autism have above-average intelligence; other have intellectual disabilities

Hearing Impairment (HI)
A partial or complete loss of hearing.
-condition in which an individual has the inability or limited ability to receive information auditory such as that it interferes with learning.
-students can be hard of hearing or deaf and in some cases students can utilize hearing aids or amplifying systems as well as cochlear implants depending on the severity of the impairment

Visual Impairment (VI)
A partial or complete loss of vision.
-condition in which an individual has an inability or a limited ability to receive information visually so much so that it interferes with learning.
-Some students have partial sight and can learn successfully use magnification devices and other adaptive materials.
-students who are blind do not use vision as a means of learning and instead rely primarily on touch and hearing.
-students may use braille, or computer adapted for their use.
-some students with vision loss need specialized training to help them learn to move around successfully in their environment

Deaf-Blindness
A simultaneous significant loss of hearing and vision which interferes with learning.
-these students have extraordinarily unique learning needs, particularly in the domain of communication, they require highly specialized services to access their education.
-the degree of the vision/hearing loud varies from moderate to severe & may be accompanied by other disabilities.
-students in this category are likely to receive special education services beginning at birth or very soon thereafter.

Orthopedic Impairment (OI)
A significant physical limitation that impairs the ability to move or complete motor activities and interfere with learning.
-students who have cerebral palsy are included as well as those with other diseases that affect the skeleton or muscles.
-some students are unable to move about without a wheelchair and may need special transportation to get to school and a ramp to enter the school building.
-others may lack fine motor skills needed to write and may require extra time or adapted equipment to complete assignments

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
A medical condition denoting a serious brain injury that occurs as a result of accident or injury; potentially affecting learning, behavior, social skills, and language.
-Students with TBI have limited strength, alertness, developmental delays, short term memory problems, hearing or vision loss may be temporary or permanent, irritability, and sudden mood swings.
-TBI is a medical condition that affects education so diagnosis by a physician is require along with assessment of student’s learning, behavior, and social skills.
-Students who experience serious head trauma and resulting TBI from automobile accidents, falls and sports injuries are among those who might be eligible for services.

Other Health Impairment (OHI)
A disease or health disorder so significant that it negatively affects learning; examples include cancer, sickle-ciill anemia, and diabetes.
-Medical or health conditions such as AIDS, seizure disorders, cancer, juvenile diabetes, and asthma that are serious enough that they affect a student’s educational performance.
-Students who have chronic heart conditions necessitating frequent and prolonged absences from school might be eligible for special education, as might those with severe and chronic asthma.
-some students with ADHD also receive special education.

Multiple Disorders
the simultaneous presence of two or more disabilities such that non can be identified as primary; the most common is the combination of intellectual and physical disabilities.
-condition in which individuals have two of the disabilities outlined in IDEA, although no one can be determined to be predominant
-also may be used to describe any student with 2 or more disability types (with the exception of deaf-blindness).
-students with multiple disabilities often benefit from assistive technology.

Developmental Delay (DD)
A nonspecific disability category that states may choose to use as an alternative to specific disability labels for students up to age 9
-Significant delay in one or more of the following areas leading to the need for special education and related services: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, special or emotional development, or adaptive development. Applicable only for children 3-9.
-avoids the use of more stigmatizing labels for young children.
-acknowledges the difficulty of determining the nature of a specific disability when children are rapidly growing and changing.

Related Services
services students with disabilities need to benefit from their educational experience. Examples of related services include transportation, physical therapy, speech therapy, and counseling.

Response to Intervention
An approach for the identification of learning disabilities based on whether student learning disabilities improves or fails to improve after the student receives increasingly intense, research based interventions; the latter may be indicting of a learning disability