Intro to Organic Chemistry

Covalent Bond

form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or between atoms and other covalent bonds

 

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Valence electrons

are the electrons contained in the outermost, or valence, electron shell of an atom.

 

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Proton

is a small particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary charge. It is often found as a subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom.

 

 

Neutron
a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
Electron
an elementary subatomic particle that carries a negative electrical charge.
Hydrogen Ion

A positively charged hydrogen that occurs from the loss of its sole electron.

Electronegativity
The tendency of an atom to pull bonding electons towards itself.
Polar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond between atoms of different electronegativities.
Lewis Structure

A representation of bonds and atoms in which the vailence electrons are represented as dots.

 

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Nonbonding electrons/

Lone-pair electrons

Electrons not used in bonding.
Formal Charge

A positive or negative charge assigned to an atom.

 

Formal charge=number of vailence electrons-(number of lone-pair electrons + 1/2 the # of bonding electrons)

Kekule Structures

The two bonding electrons are drawn as lines and the lone-pair electrons are usually left out entirely.

 

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