Intro to Organic Chemistry

Covalent Bond

form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or between atoms and other covalent bonds



Valence electrons

are the electrons contained in the outermost, or valence, electron shell of an atom.




is a small particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary charge. It is often found as a subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom.



a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
an elementary subatomic particle that carries a negative electrical charge.
Hydrogen Ion

A positively charged hydrogen that occurs from the loss of its sole electron.

The tendency of an atom to pull bonding electons towards itself.
Polar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond between atoms of different electronegativities.
Lewis Structure

A representation of bonds and atoms in which the vailence electrons are represented as dots.



Nonbonding electrons/

Lone-pair electrons

Electrons not used in bonding.
Formal Charge

A positive or negative charge assigned to an atom.


Formal charge=number of vailence electrons-(number of lone-pair electrons + 1/2 the # of bonding electrons)

Kekule Structures

The two bonding electrons are drawn as lines and the lone-pair electrons are usually left out entirely.



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