Intro To Forensic Science Exam Study Guide

Arthur Conan Doyle
Created Sherlock Holmes

Edmond Locard
Locard Exchange Principle- When a criminal comes in contact with an object or another person a cross-transfer of evidence occurs.

Francis Galton
Conducted the first definitive study of fingerprints and proposed them as a way of identification.

Alphonse Bertillon
Developed the first scientific system of personal identification based on measurements.

Hans Gross
Wrote the first book on forensic science.

Identification
Examines evidence for fingerprints.

Fire arms
Discharged bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells and ammo of all type. Tool marks.

Toxicology
Examines body fluids and organs for the presence of toxins and poisons.

Evidence Collection
Go to crime scenes and collect and preserve physical evidence.

Trace
Hairs, fibers, glass, paint, GSR, and soil. “Anything that doesn’t bleed or shoot.”

DNA/Serology
Blood, fluids and tissue.

Questioned documents
Analyze inks and papers.

CSI vs Real Criminalist
No contact with suspect or witnesses, limited access to high tech equipment depending on lab location, are not in charge of investigations, etc.

Study in Scarlet
Novel written by Arthur Conan Doyle which introduced Sherlock Holmes.

d’Autremont Brothers
10/11/1923, three young brothers attempt to rob a train carrying mail across the country. A receipt along with chemical testing of a garment, and wearing of the left side of the overalls led to the arrests of the brothers.

Lindbergh Case
The infant of Lindbergh was kidnapped. Crude homemade ladder, muddy footprints, a chisel and a randsom note was evidence found. Randsom note found in connection to a German-born carpenter Bruno Richard Hauptmann in the Bronx. Pane in garage used to smooth wood and floorboards in attic were used for the ladder.

Fourth Amendment
Prohibits unreasonable searches and requires any warrant to be judicially sanctioned.

Fifth Amendment
Cannot be forced to testify against oneself. No double jeopardy.

Sixth Amendment
Guarantees a cluster of rights designed to make criminal prosecution more accurate, fair and legitimate.

Eighth Amendment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Bailiff
A court officer or attendant who has charge of a court session to keep order, custody of prisoners and the jury.

Witness Stand
To provide the honest truth.

Court Clerk
Keeps the official court record including documents and physical evidence. Like a secretary.

Prosecutor
Attorney representing the plaintiff.

Judge
The lawgiver. He/she makes sure the law is followed.

Jury Box
Decides if the defendant is guilty or not.

Plaintiff
Victim.