International marketing management
1. Define problem or goals in terms of home-country cultural traits, habits and norms 2. Define problem or goals in terms of foreign cultural traits, habits and norms 3. Isolate the SRC influence in the problem and examine it carefully to see how complicates the problem 4. Redefine the problem without the SRC influence and solve for the foreign market Self-reference criterion (SRC) as an unconscious reference to ones own cultural values, experiences and knowledge as a basis for decisions.
The SRC impedes the ability to assess a foreign market in its true light. For example, Americans may perceive more traditional societies to be “backward” and “unmotivated” because they fail to adopt new technologies or social customs, seeking instead to preserve traditional values. In the 1960s, a supposedly well read American psychology professor referred to India’s culture of “sick” because, despite severe food shortages, the Hindu religion did not allow the eating of cows.
The psychologist expressed disgust that the cows were allowed to roam free in villages, although it turns out that they provided valuable functions by offering milk and fertilizing fields. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view one’s culture to be superior to others. The important thing here is to consider
Self-reference is a topic whose theoretical foundations have so far primarily been studied in the context of logic, the philosophy of language, systems theory, and post-modern culture. In computer science it has been a topic in the context of the recursively of Turing machines. In semiotics, there have been only few studies which have dealt explicitly with this topic, although marginal reflections on self reference can occasionally be found in the context of the theory of reference. Levels and degrees of self-reference criterion: Examples from advertising
Just as signs may self-referentially refer to the world of signs, the media may refer to the world of the media in a self-referential manner. Citations, intertextuality, intermediality, met textual references, repetitions, recursions, and references to the communicative situation are some of the symptoms of self-reference in the media. Various degrees of self-reference must be distinguished, from the sign that refers to nothing but itself to the sign that refers only partially to itself and partially still to something else.
Furthermore, self reference occurs at different levels of the message in which it occurs. Beginning with the smallest elements of the message, the first three levels of self-reference are derived from Peirce’s trichotomy of the interpret ant: 34 rheumatic (equivalent to the unit of a word), dicentic (equivalent to a proposition), and argumentative self-reference. In extension of this Peircean triad, textual, intertextual, intermedial and communicative self-reference will be distinguished.
Communicative self-reference criterion Communicative self-reference pertains to pragmatics, the situation of text production and reception. The roles of the readers or the spectators and the enunciative roles of the authors, the producers, the actors or the players become the topic of the message. Instead of presenting or representing ideas or events in the world beyond the message, the text deals with its own communicative context, its communicative function, and its presuppositions.
The text has thus its own pragmatic dimension as its topic. For example, the audience of a film is reminded of the fact that it is participating in the film while sitting in the film theatre. 38 Peter Greeanway’s actors that step out of their role as actors and mingle with the audience, or Alfred Hitchcock, who steps out of the role of a film producer to become an actor are further examples of communicative self-reference.