Industrial Revolution Study Guide

Industrial Revolution
Movement beginning in England in the mid 1700s where the output of machine-made goods greatly increased

Enclosure Movement
Time period when large landowners took over the lands of smaller landowners to make farms that covered huge areas of land

Crop rotation
Form of farming where there was a different crop planted every year so as to keep nutrients in the soil and still be harvesting food (i.e. Wheat>Turnips>Barley>Clovers)

Agricultural Revolution
Movement that was sparked by the need to farm more efficiently due to the high numbers of enclosures that were in England

Process of developing the machine production of goods rather than production of goods with human labor

Factors of Production
Resources needed in a region to produce goods and services that the Industrial Revolution required

Large buildings full of machines that mass-produced a product or many products

A person who organizes, manages, and takes the risks of a business

Flying Shuttle
A shuttle that sped back and forth on wheels that was a boat-shaped piece of wood with yarn attached which could double the work a weaver could do in a day

Spinning Jenny
A spinner that could weave 8 pieces of yarn at the same speed and rate as the Flying Shuttle

Power Loom
A spinner that produced stronger, finer thread with less fuel

Water Frame
A spinner that used the water from nearby streams, rather than steam engines, as the source of power

Spinning Mule
A spinner that combined the Water Frame with the previous spinners to produce a fast, water-powered spinner that spun strong, fine thread

Steam Engine
This was a source of energy that used steam

Steam Boat
Boat powered by steam engine, moves much faster than regular boats

These allowed the army to travel during the winter because the drainage system cleared out the mud

Steam-driven locomotives drove on these tracks. They were used to carry materials and people.

A powered rail vehicle used for pulling trains

Process when city populations are rapidly growing due to migration

Middle Class
The class that makes enough money to live, but doesn’t make enough money to live in luxury

Living Conditions
Environment of every-day life

Working Condition
Environment of working place, during Industrial Revolution, this was bad

Class tensions
Clash between Upper, Middle, and Lower Classes where disagreement arise

Positive Effects of Industrial Revolution
Efficient working, surpluses, transportation, technology advanced extremely

Negative Effects of Industrial Revolution
Environment, Working Conditions, Lower Class impoverished

Destination of the first railroad ever built

Businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock

A part of a company that can be bought; when the company profite, so do you

Industrialization in United States
Samuel Slater illegally brought ideas of Industrial Revolution from Britain to America, Industrialization took place immediately

Industrialization in Belgium
In 1799 William Cockerill left Britain and started building spinning factories in Belgium with his son. Belgium accepted the ideas and immediately profited

Industrialization in Germany
Germany was split until Industrialization was popping up in areas. They reunited and worked together to produce to the full potential.

Industrialization in France
They industrialized in a controlled fashion, therefore avoiding the social and political problems inherited with Industrialization

Global Inequality
The systematic differences in wealth and power between countries.

How society changed
There were less farmers needed and there were more openings in factory working, therefore providing more jobs, but also helping the wealthy grow wealthier and the poor grow poorer

Laissez Faire
Industry owners control their environments without interference from the government

Adam Smith
Founder of Laissez Faire and Capitalism, believed in:
1. law of competition
2. law of self-interest
3. law of supply and demand

An economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in private ventures for a profit

The public will own all factors of production for the benefit of all citizens

Karl Marx – Direct rule by the people, starts with rules with absolute power, NO private property

Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of Socialism. He is known for writing the book “The Communist Manifesto” (1848)

Government needs to do the greatest good for the greatest number of people (Bentham and John Stewart Mill)

An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence

English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market

Robert Owen
British cotton manufacturer who believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. He tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed

An association of workers formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages

When a union comes together to protest in order to receive higher wages

Reform Laws
These laws helped to lower child labor and it prevented factory owners from working women for more than 10 hours

William Wilberforce
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.

Impact of Industrial Revolution on Women
It opened many jobs for women to take, and it restricted women from being abused

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