Industrial-Organizational Psychology

Industrial-Organizational Psychology
The application of psychological principles to the work place

The Organizational Psychologist
The study of organizations an the people who work in them.

Goals of an IO psychologist
to increase employee productivity, well being, and satisfaction. productivity is a product of the well-being and satisfaction.

Jobs of IO (Industrial)
job analysis, personnel selection, performance appraisal, training, personality at work

Jobs of IO (organization)
Job satisfaction, groups and teams, leadership, work-life balance, organization fairness, legal

What is an IO psychologist?
making the workplace better for employees and employers, increase productivity.

What does it mean to say that I/O psychology is a science and a profession?
Use scientific knowledge based on data and theory. apply theories to practical effect.

Roles in IO
research and academia. (researcher, teacher)

Practitioner and consulting
internal consultant (fills HR, IO needs)
External consultant- (contract out to several companies).

How did psychology’s growing interest in individual differences relate to the origins of the field of organizational psychology?
You can test for individual differences

Give examples of the types of questions an I/O psychologist might try to answer, and some methods they might use to answer them.
who should we hire? how to increase productivity? why am i unhappy at this job?

job satisfaction
the attitudes that we have about our job, environment and our organization

affect
(emotions) how you feel about your job?

behavioral (job satisfaction)
what do you do? leave early, slack off

cognitive (job satisfaction)
how do you think about your job? is it challenging? boring?

state
your state fluctuates day to day which changes job satisfaction

trait
stable view on job satisfaction. ex., kids that love their job 20 years later love their jobs. (no matter if they are the same)

Positive affectivity
the likleyhood you are positive

how to measure satisfaction
self report typically. ask about emotions because emotions affect behaviors.

Job Description Index (JDI)
measures five facets of job satisfaction: work, pay, opportunity for promotion, supervisors, co-workers

the faces scale
breaks language barrier, but not complex enough, maybe even insulting.

Which types of goals are generally best? Specific goals or vague (“do your best”) goals? More challenging goals, or easier goals?
People with specific hard goals perform best.

Why do people with more specific and challenging goals perform better than vague easy ones?
employees who are commited to attaining high goals are high performers, because they are not satisfied with less.

What might increase an employee’s commitment to a goal?
1. Person must have the knowledge to obtain the goal. 2. must be commited to goal. 3. receive feedback. 4.tasks that are complex for a person, mitigate positive effects of specific high goal setting. 5.constraints can make goal attainment
difficult.

Also, in the Weyerhaeuser study, what were the three types of reinforcements, and which worked best?
praise, public recognition, money. all were about the same.

Describe the Weyerhaeuser study and its results, which provided answers to these questions.
Some scientists/engineers were given an assigned goal and received
praise, public recognition, or a monetary bonus for achieving it.
Others participated in setting their own goals and received one of these same three rewards. Still others were urged to do their best
and given one of the same three rewards.

Would it be best to assign goals to highly educated people working on complex tasks, or to have them participate in creating their own?
works better if they create their own.

The article, “What we know about leadership” suggest that there is a bright side and a dark side to reputational personality. When do they predict you are more likely to show those sides to others? Does the Five Factor Model typically reflect the bright side or the dark side?
Over the long term, not short term.The FFM shows the bright side.

How do the authors of The article, “What we know about leadership” define leadership? What do they think is the most appropriate way to evaluate it?
defined in terms of the ability to build and maintain a group that performs well.
leadership should be evaluated in terms of the performance of the group over time.

How did Freud’s generalization about life’s “most important problem” differ from that of sociology/anthropology/evolutionary psychology?
Freud; most people are neurotic.
soc/anth/evo psych; getting along with people and gaining status.

The authors believe there are certain “competencies” or skills that are important for leadership, and that they fall in the intrapersonal, interpersonal, business, and leadership domains. Which do they think develops last? Which are the hardest and easiest skills to train?
Leadership develops last.
intrapersonal hardest to train, leadership easiest.

The business literature was full of the “charismatic CEO” stereotype, when the authors of the book “Good to Great” reported that leaders of companies that had become great were not always so charismatic. What two characteristics did the CEOs of the improved companies have in common?
modest-humble and persistent.

implicit prejudice
unfounded negative belief of which we’re unaware regarding the characteristics of an out-group

How might in-group favoritism play out in the workplace?
financial problems from making poor decisions.bad publicity. bad hiring decisions.

Students in study groups at Harvard were asked to estimate what percentage of a group project they had each contributed. Did the totals come out to 100%? Why or why not?
no. Unconscious over claiming. overestimating our contributions.

how to measure health
self report, but people can lie.

health problems in work place
burnout, depression, anxiety, stress

what can we do about health problems?
stress management policies, training

objective performance
how much you sold. problem – it’s contextual, a number of reasons can affect sales.

subjective performance
self-report. problems: bad performers don’t know they are, good performers do know.

360 feedback ratings
feedback from every angle. clients, coworkers, boss.
problems: expensive, time consuming

performance leads to
satisfaction

coralation of satisfaction leading to high performance
weak

3 main categories of individual differences
intelligence, personality, motivation

G intelligence (general)
ability to learn. think critcally

the big 5
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
Openness
Extraversion

intelligence, personality, motivation are powerful predictors of?
happy healthy productive

does intelligence predict health?
yes, but not general health. less accidents.

does intelligence relate to productivity
g is the single best predictor of job performance

does g predict training success
yes. High g people tend to learn faster

how does the changing nature of jobs influence the importance of g and conscientiousness?
jobs are more complex and g is becoming more important.

IQ predicts objective or subjective performance better?
objective

task performance
the combination of effectiveness and efficiency at doing your core job tasks

contextual performance
extra role behaviors. (doing extra work on the job)

g predicts task performance or contextual
task performance, but not necessarily contextual

Work motivation
Is personally motivated and can be motivated

extrinsic motivation
influenced by external factors

intrinsic
comes from within

need-based theory
individuals desire for accomplishments. effort for mastery and high standards

work-life balance
complex interaction among different domains in life

SMART goals
▪S pecific
▪M easurable
▪A rduous
▪R ealistic
▪T ime-based

time based
when the time devoted to one domain makes it difficult to fulfill the obligations in another domain

Job Characteristics Theory
All people can be motivated by the proper job design and environment

strain based
when the pressures from one domain spill into and affect another domain

behavior based
behaviors that are rewarded in one domain are incompatable with behavior in another. (ie, aggressive behavior, boxing)

positive spillover
good things happen in one domain and carryover to another

expanded self concept
having multiple roles gives greater context of who we are.

buffering of failures
getting away from one role can be good if you are failing in it

segmentation
boundaries to separate domains.
ex. only available at work when you are there.

integration
work at most important thing at the time. more flexable.

why is goal setting effective?
focuses your energy, increases persistence, buffers against failure

job based theory (motivation)
all people can be motivated by the proper job design and development

important job characteristics (job based theory)
task significance, autonomy, task identity, and task feedback

behavioral approach (motivation)
most extrinsic. organizational behavioral modification. ex, reward system of promotions, giving employee a raise

management vs leadership
management- power comes from the position. (formal)
leadership- comes from the person (informal)

emergent leadership
given similar levels of power who becomes the leader

effective leadership
performance of the group

trait approach (leadership)
effective leaders possess certain traits that are difference from less effective leaders. leaders are born not made

If leaders are born not made, than organizations will put more money into?
selection of employees (effectiveness) vs training

positive leadership traits
high energy, integrity, competence, vision

negative traits of leadership (bad)
poor interpersonal skills, no team cohesion, narcissitic

percentage of people that think their boss are the worst part of their job
75%

behavior approach (leadership)
Effective leaders behave in certain ways that are different than no-effective leaders. leaders are made not born

job-centered vs people centered
job= task oriented people= relationships. best leaders are both.

path-goal theory
a theory that concerns how leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals

transformational leadership
leadership that, enabled by a leader’s vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence

Process Based Theory
goal setting theory. get SMART goals