Indonesia – 599 words – College Essay

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This report will be on the History in Brief of Indonesia, the Government of

Indonesia, the island of Java, and the Geography of Indonesia. In early days,

the region from India to Japan, including Indonesia, was known to the Europeans

as the Indies. Chris Columbus was looking for a westward sea root from Europe to

the Indies, when he arrived in America. During 1600s the Dutch political control

began to spread Indonesia. Indonesia declared it’s independence in 1945 and

fought the Dutch until 1949, when they gave up their control. At first, the

Dutch allowed nationalist movement to develop. In 1905, it had introduced

councils to govern the towns and cities. By 1920, there were 32 such councils,

with little electoral franchise. Other councils were also established. They

included provincial councils in Java, and group communities councils outside

Java. The current government of Indonesia is based on a constitution written in

1945. A president serves as the head of government. The president appoints a

sheet of advisers consisting of top military leaders and civilians. In theory,

the assembly is supposed to establish a general direction of the government’s

policies. A house of peoples Representatives is the nation’s parliament,

however, in practice neither the assembly nor the house has real power. Instead,

it is the president who makes all of the important decisions. The president is

elected to a five-year term the Peoples Consultative assembly. The assembly has

1,000 members. It includes the 500 members of the people’s representatives. It

also includes 500 members of regional, occupational, and other groups. All

assembly members serve five-year terms. The assembly usually is only held once

every five years. The 500 members of the People’s Representatives includes 400

who are elected through a system that insures that the government’s political

organization win most of the seats. Serviceman have no vote, so the remaining

100 are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the commander of the

armed forces. Indonesia is divided into twenty-seven provinces. The provinces

are divided into regencies and municipalities. These units are further divided

into villages. Officials of all local government units except villages are

appointed by central government from lists of people nominated by regional

legislators. Indonesian villages elect their own village officials to provide

local government. Java lies between Sumatra (to the west), and Bali (to the

east). To the north is the Java Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean, which

Indonesians call the Indonesian Ocean. The greatest distance from North Java to

South Java is two hundred kilometers. From East Java to West Java is over one

thousand kilometers. The island of Java has five administrative units: the

special territory of Jakarta Raya, Java Barat , Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, the

special territory of Yogjakarta, and Jawa Timur. Chains of volcanic mountains

run along the island from west to east. These mountains are apart of a fold in

the earth’s crust which extends from Southeast Asian mainland through Sumatra

and Java to the lesser Sundra Islands. Java itself has 112 peaks. The volcanic

soil is extremely fertile and this are supports a large population. Tangkuban

Prahu in West Java is a live volcanoe that attracts many tourists. A similar

mountain in the Sunda Straights, Krakatoua, is famous for its eruption in 1883.

The whole northern portion of the peak was blown away. The explosion was heard

over 700 kilometers away. The resulting sea waves caused over thirty six

thousand Indonesian deaths in the low lying of West and South Jakarta. Indonesia

is a country in Southeast Asia that consists of more than 13,600 islands. The

islands lie along the equator, and extend more than 5,000 kilometers. Many of

the islands cover only a few square kilometers but about half of New Guinea (an

area called Irian Jaya), and three fourths of Borneo (Kalimantan), also belong

to Indonesia. New Guinea and Borneo are the second and third largest islands in

the world after Greenland.

Geography

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