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IB History Paper 1 – Peacemaking and Peacekeeping

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Aims of USA
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Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points 1918 idealistic aims of creating world peace by eliminating what he thought had caused the war: – Freedom of Navigation – Democracy and self-determination – Free trade – Stop treaties that were being made in secrecy – Genereal disarmament – Create a League of Nations – Germany was to pay to an extent for causing the war and establish a period of probation after which it could join the LoN
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Aims of France
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– Suffered from the war and feared that Germany would attack again – Weaken Germany economically and militarily with reparations and demilitarisation – Territorial reductions – Wanted a guaranteed agreement with the US and UK to firm alliance in case of a future German attack
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Aims of Britain
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– Germany to pay extensive reparations – prevent it from becoming a point of conflict or taking over Europe – return the territories taken during the war – rebuild a strong economy by restoring European relations and trade as Germany was a major customer of British goods
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Italy
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– Italy wanted territories that had been promised to it in the Treaty of London, when denied these territories it walked out of the Versailles Conference
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The Paris Peace Treaties
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Paris Peace Settlement 1919 was created from five treaties: The Treaty of Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly and Sevres/Lausanne. The settlement dealt specifically with Germany and the other treaties dealt with the geo-political and economic future of Europe.
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Treaty of Versailles
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– 1919 – Germany had to accept full responsibility for the outbreak of the First World War – Germany lost colonies and investments – independent polish state – Alsace-Lorraine was given back to France – limited to 100,000 military personnel – not allowed airforce – end of compulsory enlistment into armed forces – Germany owed 6,600 million League of Nations: – USA refused to join, Germany and the defeated nations were excluded